Pharmacologic treatment of the disease presentation

Pharmacologic treatment of the disease presentation ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Pharmacologic treatment of the disease presentation Part 2 of the presentation will focus on the pharmacologic treatment of the disease, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions, side effects, adverse reactions, and application of the nursing process in monitoring the drug therapy. Pharmacologic treatment of the disease presentation Slide Presentation Responsible for: drug interactions, side effects and adverse reactions Slides 17, 18, 19 with a reference page at the end attachment_1 GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease BY: BETH TAYLOR, CHRISTINA GRAHAM, JAMES KIM AND JULIE SMITH Physiology ? Digestive tract ? ? Digestion ? ? Breaks down food both physically and chemically Mechanical digestion ? ? Essentially a tube that extends from the mouth to the anus Involves physically breaking down food Chemical digestion ? The use of digestive enzymes to break food down further Physiology cont. ? Esophagus ? ? Peristalsis ? ? 3-4 cm long segment of contracted smooth muscle Diaphragm ? ? Component of anti-reflux mechanism LES ? ? GERD’s main staging area Provides an extrinsic component to the gastroesophageal barrier Increase of thoraco-abdominal pressure gradient ? Abnormal gastric emptying Physiology cont. ? Mucosal damage ? ? Unclear if inflammation is a cause or consequence Refluxate ? Harmful to the esophagus Pathophysiology of GERD ? What is Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease(GERD)? ? ? Malfunction in lower esophageal sphincter Effects of GERD on patient ? Frequent heartburn and regurgitation ? Chronic cough ? Laryngitis ? Chest pain Pathophysiology of GERD cont. ? Health conditions that may increase at risk for GERD include: Obesity Pregnancy Smoking Delayed stomach emptying Hypercalcemia Connective tissue disorder Dry Mouth Asthma Diabetes Medication induced GERD Pathophysiology of GERD cont. ? Treatment options for GERD ? Control heartburn through over the counter medications ? Prescription strength medications ? Surgery and other procedures Clinical manifestations ? most common cause of non-cardiac chest pain ? presents to the ER with pain resembling a myocardial infarction ? Pressure, tightness, pain, squeezing or aching sensation in your chest or arms that may spread to your neck, jaw or back ? Nausea ? Indigestion ? heartburn or abdominal pain ? Shortness of breath Clinical Manifestations cont. ? Typical Symptoms ? Heartburn ? Regurgitation ? Dysphagia ? Nausea ? indigestion Clinical Manifestations cont. ? Atypical symptoms ? Coughing ? chest pain ? Wheezing ? Hoarseness EVALUATION: ? Tests are not always necessary to make a diagnosis of GERDPharmacologic treatment of the disease presentation ? Evaluation of GERD begins with a history and physical exam ? Physical findings: ?- tenderness in the upper abdomen ?- belching ? – gas ?- heartburn ?- lower chest pain TEST: ? – esophageal pH monitoring ?- ? measures the amount of acid in the esophagus over 24-48 hours – endoscopy ?- uses a flexible tube with a light and video camera ?- via the throat examines the esophagus for inflammation, strictures or any abnormal changes in the lining ? – manometry ?- identifies problems with motility and valve pressure in the esophagus – measures function of the esophageal valves LABS: ? Some blood work may be ordered to help with the diagnosis of GERD ?- CBC ?- Serum gastrin ?- stool guaiac ?- chest x-ray REFERENCES: ? De Giorgi, F., Palmiero, M., Esposito, I., Mosca, F., & Cuomo, R. (2006). Pathophysiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. ACTA Otorhinnolaryncol Ital, 26, 241-246. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17345932 ? Herbella, F. A. & Patti, M. G., (2010). Gastroesophageal reflux disease: From pathophysiology to treatment. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2921084/ ? Mayo Clinic. (2016). Gerd. Symptoms. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gerd/basics/symptoms/CON20025201 ? Marco G Patti, MD. (2016). Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Clinical Presentation. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/176595-clinical#b1 ? Sloan-Thompson, G., (2015). Understanding anatomy and physiology: A visual auditory, interactive approach (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company ? U.A. 2015, Understanding Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) – Diagnosis and treatment, Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/heartburn-gerd … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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