Post University Psychotherapist Can Obtain Critical Information Discussion

Post University Psychotherapist Can Obtain Critical Information Discussion Post University Psychotherapist Can Obtain Critical Information Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS I need support with this Psychology question so I can learn better. Discussion #1 Assessment-Case Study Samantha S. Dr. January and Class, In regards to the Gomez family, the first thing this student would want to do is ask each family member’s perspective on the situation. This is because a separation can affect everyone differently. This writer would utilize narrative therapy as a way for each family member to ‘tell their story’. This technique allows each family member to separate themselves from the initial problem, whichever the perceived problem is for them (Metcalf, 2011). However, the father who has a history of alcohol misuse, might not benefit from narrative therapy. This is because he may feel as if he doesn’t have the capability of being the ‘expert’ of the situation. This is because some clients might feel uncomfortable being in control of the therapy session. With Juan’s extensive alcohol misuse, he might have limited skills to be a good candidate for narrative therapy (Narrative therapy: Definition, 2015). However, this student would like to utilize narrative therapy to allow Juan to explain his reasoning behind the drinking. Furthermore, she would try to maneuver approach and allow Juan to ‘re-create’ his story without drinking in order to see how he sees his life without alcohol being involved. On the other hand, narrative therapy might help the children create a story where they are happy, even though they’re parents have recently separated. In addition, narrative therapy might not work for this family because men are said to have the greatest authority in Hispanic families. Women are expected to be submissive, which would not allow narrative therapy to be the best approach for this family (U.S Department of Health and Human Service Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d.). While there are limitations to narrative therapy for the Gomez family, there are still some benefits. Post University Psychotherapist Can Obtain Critical Information Discussion Due to the fact that the entire family showed up to therapy, this student does believe that the family could benefit from narrative therapy. The six year old might be wetting his bed because of the fact that his parents are separated and it is affecting him more significantly. The separation of the parents does not have to be the end to their ‘happy ending’. The family just needs to learn how to create a story that involves happiness and compromise amongst the family members. After all, narrative therapy does not aim to change a person, but allows them to become an expert in their own life (Clarke, 2020). This approach can help each of the family members recognize that their story does not revolve around the fact that their parents are separated. They are allowed to keep living their life without letting the potential ‘divorce’ hinder their overall happiness. With that being said, this student would like to discuss two techniques of narrative therapy that she would most likely utlilize for the Gomez family. First and foremost, this student would utlize the technique usually referred to as ‘externalizing problems’, which is basically allowing the client separate the problem from themselves. This is because the person is not the problem. Rather, the problem is the problem. Furthermore, this technique would benefit the Gomez family because this writer would ask each of the members to describe the perceived problem. Secondly, she would allow each of them to guide their ‘story’ in a way where the problem does not define them. IN other words, the problem no longer resides in them and are no longer blaming each other for each of the ‘problems’ in the family (Metcalf, 2011). The next technique this student would want to use is ‘deconstruction’ because it would allow each of the family members to look at the scenario from a different perspective. In other words, this technique helps individuals break down the pieces of their story that might be ‘hindering’ their growth. Specifically, it allows people to come to the realization that they are capable of tackling each of the ‘problems’ in their life by addressing each of them separately.In addition, it helps the clients realize that they are capable of influencing their life from a different perspective (Anderson, 2019). While narrative therapy seems fairly effective for the Gomez family, this student can see the family benefiting more from solution-focused therapy. Class, what are your thoughts on this approach for the Gomez family? References Anderson, J. (2019, April 24). Four narrative therapy techniques that can change your perception of self. Retrieved November 25, 2020, from https://www.betterhelp.com/advice/therapy/four-narrative-therapy-techniques-that-can-change-your-perception-of-self/ Clarke, J. (2020, November 23). Become the expert of your own life through narrative therapy. Retrieved November 25, 2020, from https://www.verywellmind.com/narrative-therapy-4172956 Linda Metcalf, P. L.-S. L.-S. (2011). Marriage and family therapy?: A practice-oriented approach. Springer Publishing Company. Narrative therapy: Definition. (2015, July 06). Retrieved November 25, 2020, from https://www.addiction.com/blogs/a-z/narrative-therapy/ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Cultural insights: Communication with Hispanics/Latinos. Retrieved November 25, 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/healthcommunication/pdf/audience/audienceinsight_culturalinsights.pdf Robin A. Dr. January and Class, Narrative therapy is based on the premise that people shape their lives through stories. A client who is telling us stories is doing so by linking together the understanding they hold of the problem they are seeking help for. They often speak about what brought them to therapy, their belief of the history of the problem, and who or what they believe is accountable for the problem (Madigan, 2011). In the case of the Gomez family, their story can be told from the chronological viewpoint. We know the most recent, and the reason they are coming for therapy, is due to Juan Jr.’s bedwetting. Additionally, Juan Sr. and Elisa are separating. If we go to the beginning of their story, Juan Sr. has a history of alcohol abuse, which likely connects the timeline with the domestic abuse. Metcalf (2011) notes that the therapist can take the family through a series of steps to evaluate the family’s problem, such as identifying the problem, externalizing it, stating how the problem has impacted the family and how to strategize in order to diminish the issue. A suggested question is ‘what does the problem tell you?’ I would be quite curious to learn what the family says about this; will they incorporate the story of alcohol and domestic abuse into the narrative and will the family discuss the marital separation and the impact it has had on Juan Jr.? Culture, for many of us, is one of the most influential aspects of our lives. It can guide the decisions that we make. It also does not blame clients for their problems, which is a distinct advantage, especially with the Gomez family. In discussing Juan Jr.’s bedwetting with the family, I will be watchful for any ‘blame’ or finger pointing that is occurring, not only because of the bedwetting, but due to the other problems this family has experienced. I do not want Juan Jr. to believe that he is the sole reason for attending therapy or believe he has done something wrong. In the practice of narrative therapy, I am not making assumptions about the lives of the Gomez family or forming judgements. I believe this may be an advantage with the Gomez family from a cultural viewpoint. If they understand this aspect of therapy from the beginning, they may be more open to the process. I would employ deconstructing the problem with this family in an effort to zero in on the heart of the problem. In this case, there are several issues to consider that are a dominant part of their lives. Deconstructing the problem will break it down in order to hone in on the heart of the issue. When a story has been a dominant force in the lives of the family for a long period of time, there is a tendency to overgeneralize it, making it difficult to discover what the problem truly is (Vinney, 2019). I would also use externalization in the hopes of changing the family’s perspective of what is happening in their lives so it is no longer viewed as problematic. They are a family who has problems, they are not the problem themselves, and I believe they will ultimately benefit from knowing that. Post University Psychotherapist Can Obtain Critical Information Discussion Madigan, S. (2011). Narrative family therapy. Psychotherapy. Retrieved from https://www.psychotherapy.net/data/uploads/5113d78866002.pdf. Linda Metcalf, P. L.-S. L.-S. (2011). Marriage and Family Therapy: A Practice-Oriented Approach. Springer Publishing Company. Vinney, C. (2019). What is narrative therapy? Definition and techniques. Thought Co. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/narrative-therapy-4769048. Discussion #2 Medical Family Therapy Darren E. Hello class and Professor After reading the information about each family, the writer realizes that it is very important during the assessment is to recognize and learn whether your client/clients are going through any illnesses along with any other issues, this way the counselor could collaborate the information to the other professional personnels. Any medical issues are out of the counselor’s profession, different professionals work together, they can better help the client holistically. For example, if a client suffer from a mental illness as well as drug addiction, the treatment should consist of the professionals to address both issues which mean they would have to communicate with each other to help the client in all areas of their life together. According to Metcalf, (2011), the role of the medical family therapist is one of communicating with another health care providers and to be a curious, unbiased observer of the biopsychosocial systems of the client along with the family. Included in this role, the family therapist must be able to obtain a complete illness history for the medical genogram and to be easy able with discussing disease process and treatment, even though the family therapist has little or nothing do with the actual medical treatment (Metcalf, 2011). According to Kaplan, & Coogan, (2004), psychiatry has also adopted Engel’s vision, albeit in a limited way. In 1980, when the American Psychiatric Association published the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders, it added the multiaxial system which “reveals the application of the Bio-Psycho-Social model in clinical, educational,and research settings”. Although the multiaxial supports the educational bio-psycho-social assessment of clients’ psychiatric concerns, the emphasis remains on the Axis 1 and Axis 11 diagnostic categories, which are based on the biomedical, disease model of mental illness (Kaplan & Coogan, 2004). “The fields of psychology, social work, and counseling have all begun using each others bio-psycho-social perspective in research (Smith, Kendall, & Keefe, 2002; Suls & Rothman, 2002). In practice, the use of the bio-psycho-social model in the different feilds, often involves interdisciplinary care of individuals in medical settings and/or collaboration with medical doctors (McDaniel, 1995; Suls & Rothman, 2002)”. Post University Psychotherapist Can Obtain Critical Information Discussion Reference: Kaplan, D. & Coogan, S. (n.d). The next advancement in counseling: The bio-psycho-social model. Retrieved from https://www.counseling.org/resources/library/vistas/vistas05/Vistas05.art03.pdf Metcalf, L., P. L.-S. L.-S. (2011). Marriage and family therapy: A practice-oriented approach . Springer Publishing Company. Samantha S. Dr. January and Class, To start, this student would like to talk about alcohol misuse and the different theories as to what causes it. This is because there is evidence that proposes that alcoholism consists of genetic predisposition, self-destructive behavior, and negative societal influences. Research shows different types of alcoholics. Specifically, there is a neurochemistry philosophy to alcoholism that suggest that it is a combination of both genetic factors as well as social and biological factors (Wallace, 2020). Medical family therapy is centered around the concept of accommodating to the family. Therefore, the therapist must have flexibility for where the therapy takes place. This is because some clients might feel more comfortable in their home, depending on if they have a physical disability or terminal illness (Metcalf, 2011). However, this student likes how this approach utilizes questions to ask in hopes to provide collaboration between both therapist and client(s). It is important to know that this approach does not use any specific model. In other words, it is the discretion of the therapists as to what model of family therapy to use with the family. The therapist needs to remember that the reason they are seeking therapy is because an illness has affected the family as a whole (Metcalf, 2011). In regards to alcoholism, the medical family model will help the family come to an understanding that the family member might have a predisposition to alcoholism through genes, as stated at the beginning of this post. Medical family therapists have to collaborate with other health care providers in order to ensure the most effective services are given to the client(s). This is because family therapists do not have the knowledge that primary care physicians or psychiatrists are going to have. Essentially, the family therapist will help the family broaden their understanding of the problem, alcoholism, in order to explore the best possible solutions for their family (Metcalf, 2011). The biopsychosocial model allows flexibility as it can be used by all specialities. Specifically, it has been said to be used for individual mental health counselor, career counseling, family counseling, and substance abuse counseling. Essentially, it drives the concept of problems having more than one underlying reason for it. This is because someone might be an alcoholic because of genetics. However, it could also be due to a result of peer pressure as a kid. For example, the biopsychosocial model suggests that when peer pressure is the cause of alcoholism, there is a deficit in that person’s development (Kaplan & Coogan, pg. 6). Post University Psychotherapist Can Obtain Critical Information Discussion References Metcalf, L. (2011). Marriage and family therapy: A practice-oriented approach. New York, N.Y.: Springer Pub. Co. Kaplan, D. M., & Coogan, S. L. (n.d.). The next advancement in counseling: The bio-psycho-social model. Retrieved from https://www.counseling.org/resources/library/vistas/vistas05/Vistas05.art03.pdf Wallace, J. (2020). APA PsycNet. Retrieved November 25, 2020, from https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1989-36901-001 Discussion #3 Narrative Therapy Samantha S. Dr. January and Class, This student likes the fact that narrative therapy acknowledges that people’s problems do not consume who they are. Officially, this is known as ‘externalizing problems’. This means that people’s problems are separate from themselves (Metcalf, 2011).This allows the individual to ‘rewrite’ their story without the problem being involved. Furthermore, clients can figure out if the issue is helping them or protecting them, opposed to hurting them. Essentially, it allows clients to re-create a story where the problem does not consume their daily life (Psychology Today, 2020). Moreover, another aspect this writer likes about narrative therapy is the intervention known as ‘unique outcomes’ because it allows the client to imagine a different ending to their story. Specifically, the therapist helps the client come to a realization that they are capable of being in control of having a better outcome. It allows the client(s) to look back at times when the current problem did not exist in order to use the same strategies used then (Metcalf, 2011). Furthermore, this writer likes narrative therapy because deconstruction allows people to see their ‘issues’ from a different perspective. A family who cannot agree on anything would benefit from this intervention of narrative therapy because the therapist will help each family member see things from a different perspective. In the case of a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this technique will allow him/her to realize that his hyper-active ‘energy’ does not control them. As a result, the child should be able to control his/her behavior better which in turn will make for happier parents (Metcalf, 2011). This student’s brother, who also has ADHD, has learned how to control his energy and emotions without medication. However, he was not always like that, as he used to take medication. The aspect of narrative therapy that this student would most likely integrate into her own model of family therapy is externalizing client’s problems. This is because it focuses on the fact that people are not their problems. This writer grew up in a home where every kid ‘had a problem’. This meant that they either suffered with autism, biplar disorder, anxiety disorder, or ADHD. However, her parents got licensed for foster care knowing they would probably receive children who had some kind of illness or disability. However, with time, her parents learned about the illness and worked with the child to manage the symptoms. This student likes the method of externalizing ones problems because someone can have a learning disability, but know how to overcome difficulties through experience. Furthemore, this student would least likely utlize the intervention known as ‘reauthoring’ because some clients might not benefit from this. This goes for individuals who have not overcome their experience of being sexually abused, especially if they are a child. For example, this technique allows the client to ‘reauthor’ their story that is a more positve one. In other words, it diminishes the initial ‘lablel’ that he/she may give themselves because of their experience. The text uses the example of a seuxal abuse victim only seeing herself as a ‘victim’, but using this approach would allow them to make the necessary changes in their life that does not involve the label of being a victim (Metcalf, 2011). This student does not like this approach for everyone, because some people may not be capable of seeing the ‘bright’ side if they are going through a severe depression because of it. References Linda Metcalf, P. L.-S. L.-S. (2011). Marriage and Family Therapy?: A Practice-Oriented Approach. Springer Publishing Company. Psychology Today. (2020). Narrative therapy. Retrieved November 25, 2020, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/therapy-types/narrative-therapy Darren E. Hello class and Professor When talking about the narrative therapy with families, the objective is to get the families to learn different options to view other than the thoughts or present behavior that is connected to the problems or dysfunctions within the family. The one thing that the writer admires about narrative therapy, is that you can combine other therapy models and techniques associated with those models.The three techniques that the writer admires and will use in his approach with families, first would be “Deconstructive” therapy. According to Metcalf, (2011), Micheal White has described deconstruction as methods that “exoticize the domestic” (Bourdieu, 1988, pp. xi-xii; White, 1992, p. 121). Deconstruction is intended to put our common assumptions and realities under challenge.”Deconstruction helps people release their stories or see them from different perspectives, so that the way they have been constructed becomes apparent” (Freedman & Combs, 1996, p. 120). The second technique that the writer will use as his approach when helping families is “Reauthoring”, according to Mecalf, (2011), when unique outcomes are recognized, people can be invited to ascribe meaning to them. Success in this ascription of meaning requires that the unique outcomes be organized into an alternative story or narrative. Many questions can be bought up that will assist in engaging people in this purpose of new meaning, or questions that actively involve them in, as Myerhoff (1982) would put it, “reauthoring” of their lives and their relationship. This also is to have the clients to be able to see situations in a different manner, so their story about their lives would change, because they will be able to look at the situation from a better aspect. The third technique that the writer would use as his approach when helping families is the “Outsider Witness Groups or Reflecting Teams”. According to Metcalf, (2011), outside witness groups are a form of the reflecting team. The use of reflecting teams in narrative therapy originated in the work of Tom Anderson. “The reversal of light and sound. The reflecting team often look at clients and families, then holds a conversation in front of the client and family in which they reflect on what they saw and heard. Together, they may arrive at new understanding of the family issues the way they perceive them to be and present it to the family for consideration. The family benefits from having an audience for their new preferred stories. This technique is a different technique to the writer, but the writer finds this technique to be very interesting that the writer believes that this process will help the family to take a look at themselves and the part they played in the problem, because sometimes people do things or behave in certain ways that they don’t see it themselves with having other people not seeing the same thing, instead having one person who will help them to believe in what others see in them. This will help them to change and become more of a positive person. Reference: Metcalf, L. (2011). 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Post University Psychotherapist Can Obtain Critical Information Discussion

Post University Psychotherapist Can Obtain Critical Information Discussion Post University Psychotherapist Can Obtain Critical Information Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS I need support with this Psychology question so I can learn better. Discussion #1 Assessment-Case Study Samantha S. Dr. January and Class, In regards to the Gomez family, the first thing this student would want to do is ask each family member’s perspective on the situation. This is because a separation can affect everyone differently. This writer would utilize narrative therapy as a way for each family member to ‘tell their story’. This technique allows each family member to separate themselves from the initial problem, whichever the perceived problem is for them (Metcalf, 2011). However, the father who has a history of alcohol misuse, might not benefit from narrative therapy. This is because he may feel as if he doesn’t have the capability of being the ‘expert’ of the situation. This is because some clients might feel uncomfortable being in control of the therapy session. With Juan’s extensive alcohol misuse, he might have limited skills to be a good candidate for narrative therapy (Narrative therapy: Definition, 2015). However, this student would like to utilize narrative therapy to allow Juan to explain his reasoning behind the drinking. Furthermore, she would try to maneuver approach and allow Juan to ‘re-create’ his story without drinking in order to see how he sees his life without alcohol being involved. On the other hand, narrative therapy might help the children create a story where they are happy, even though they’re parents have recently separated. In addition, narrative therapy might not work for this family because men are said to have the greatest authority in Hispanic families. Women are expected to be submissive, which would not allow narrative therapy to be the best approach for this family (U.S Department of Health and Human Service Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d.). While there are limitations to narrative therapy for the Gomez family, there are still some benefits. Post University Psychotherapist Can Obtain Critical Information Discussion Due to the fact that the entire family showed up to therapy, this student does believe that the family could benefit from narrative therapy. The six year old might be wetting his bed because of the fact that his parents are separated and it is affecting him more significantly. The separation of the parents does not have to be the end to their ‘happy ending’. The family just needs to learn how to create a story that involves happiness and compromise amongst the family members. After all, narrative therapy does not aim to change a person, but allows them to become an expert in their own life (Clarke, 2020). This approach can help each of the family members recognize that their story does not revolve around the fact that their parents are separated. They are allowed to keep living their life without letting the potential ‘divorce’ hinder their overall happiness. With that being said, this student would like to discuss two techniques of narrative therapy that she would most likely utlilize for the Gomez family. First and foremost, this student would utlize the technique usually referred to as ‘externalizing problems’, which is basically allowing the client separate the problem from themselves. This is because the person is not the problem. Rather, the problem is the problem. Furthermore, this technique would benefit the Gomez family because this writer would ask each of the members to describe the perceived problem. Secondly, she would allow each of them to guide their ‘story’ in a way where the problem does not define them. IN other words, the problem no longer resides in them and are no longer blaming each other for each of the ‘problems’ in the family (Metcalf, 2011). The next technique this student would want to use is ‘deconstruction’ because it would allow each of the family members to look at the scenario from a different perspective. In other words, this technique helps individuals break down the pieces of their story that might be ‘hindering’ their growth. Specifically, it allows people to come to the realization that they are capable of tackling each of the ‘problems’ in their life by addressing each of them separately.In addition, it helps the clients realize that they are capable of influencing their life from a different perspective (Anderson, 2019). While narrative therapy seems fairly effective for the Gomez family, this student can see the family benefiting more from solution-focused therapy. Class, what are your thoughts on this approach for the Gomez family? References Anderson, J. (2019, April 24). Four narrative therapy techniques that can change your perception of self. Retrieved November 25, 2020, from https://www.betterhelp.com/advice/therapy/four-narrative-therapy-techniques-that-can-change-your-perception-of-self/ Clarke, J. (2020, November 23). Become the expert of your own life through narrative therapy. Retrieved November 25, 2020, from https://www.verywellmind.com/narrative-therapy-4172956 Linda Metcalf, P. L.-S. L.-S. (2011). Marriage and family therapy?: A practice-oriented approach. Springer Publishing Company. Narrative therapy: Definition. (2015, July 06). Retrieved November 25, 2020, from https://www.addiction.com/blogs/a-z/narrative-therapy/ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Cultural insights: Communication with Hispanics/Latinos. Retrieved November 25, 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/healthcommunication/pdf/audience/audienceinsight_culturalinsights.pdf Robin A. Dr. January and Class, Narrative therapy is based on the premise that people shape their lives through stories. A client who is telling us stories is doing so by linking together the understanding they hold of the problem they are seeking help for. They often speak about what brought them to therapy, their belief of the history of the problem, and who or what they believe is accountable for the problem (Madigan, 2011). In the case of the Gomez family, their story can be told from the chronological viewpoint. We know the most recent, and the reason they are coming for therapy, is due to Juan Jr.’s bedwetting. Additionally, Juan Sr. and Elisa are separating. If we go to the beginning of their story, Juan Sr. has a history of alcohol abuse, which likely connects the timeline with the domestic abuse. Metcalf (2011) notes that the therapist can take the family through a series of steps to evaluate the family’s problem, such as identifying the problem, externalizing it, stating how the problem has impacted the family and how to strategize in order to diminish the issue. A suggested question is ‘what does the problem tell you?’ I would be quite curious to learn what the family says about this; will they incorporate the story of alcohol and domestic abuse into the narrative and will the family discuss the marital separation and the impact it has had on Juan Jr.? Culture, for many of us, is one of the most influential aspects of our lives. It can guide the decisions that we make. It also does not blame clients for their problems, which is a distinct advantage, especially with the Gomez family. In discussing Juan Jr.’s bedwetting with the family, I will be watchful for any ‘blame’ or finger pointing that is occurring, not only because of the bedwetting, but due to the other problems this family has experienced. I do not want Juan Jr. to believe that he is the sole reason for attending therapy or believe he has done something wrong. In the practice of narrative therapy, I am not making assumptions about the lives of the Gomez family or forming judgements. I believe this may be an advantage with the Gomez family from a cultural viewpoint. If they understand this aspect of therapy from the beginning, they may be more open to the process. I would employ deconstructing the problem with this family in an effort to zero in on the heart of the problem. In this case, there are several issues to consider that are a dominant part of their lives. Deconstructing the problem will break it down in order to hone in on the heart of the issue. When a story has been a dominant force in the lives of the family for a long period of time, there is a tendency to overgeneralize it, making it difficult to discover what the problem truly is (Vinney, 2019). I would also use externalization in the hopes of changing the family’s perspective of what is happening in their lives so it is no longer viewed as problematic. They are a family who has problems, they are not the problem themselves, and I believe they will ultimately benefit from knowing that. Post University Psychotherapist Can Obtain Critical Information Discussion Madigan, S. (2011). Narrative family therapy. Psychotherapy. Retrieved from https://www.psychotherapy.net/data/uploads/5113d78866002.pdf. Linda Metcalf, P. L.-S. L.-S. (2011). Marriage and Family Therapy: A Practice-Oriented Approach. Springer Publishing Company. Vinney, C. (2019). What is narrative therapy? Definition and techniques. Thought Co. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/narrative-therapy-4769048. Discussion #2 Medical Family Therapy Darren E. Hello class and Professor After reading the information about each family, the writer realizes that it is very important during the assessment is to recognize and learn whether your client/clients are going through any illnesses along with any other issues, this way the counselor could collaborate the information to the other professional personnels. Any medical issues are out of the counselor’s profession, different professionals work together, they can better help the client holistically. For example, if a client suffer from a mental illness as well as drug addiction, the treatment should consist of the professionals to address both issues which mean they would have to communicate with each other to help the client in all areas of their life together. According to Metcalf, (2011), the role of the medical family therapist is one of communicating with another health care providers and to be a curious, unbiased observer of the biopsychosocial systems of the client along with the family. Included in this role, the family therapist must be able to obtain a complete illness history for the medical genogram and to be easy able with discussing disease process and treatment, even though the family therapist has little or nothing do with the actual medical treatment (Metcalf, 2011). According to Kaplan, & Coogan, (2004), psychiatry has also adopted Engel’s vision, albeit in a limited way. In 1980, when the American Psychiatric Association published the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders, it added the multiaxial system which “reveals the application of the Bio-Psycho-Social model in clinical, educational,and research settings”. Although the multiaxial supports the educational bio-psycho-social assessment of clients’ psychiatric concerns, the emphasis remains on the Axis 1 and Axis 11 diagnostic categories, which are based on the biomedical, disease model of mental illness (Kaplan & Coogan, 2004). “The fields of psychology, social work, and counseling have all begun using each others bio-psycho-social perspective in research (Smith, Kendall, & Keefe, 2002; Suls & Rothman, 2002). In practice, the use of the bio-psycho-social model in the different feilds, often involves interdisciplinary care of individuals in medical settings and/or collaboration with medical doctors (McDaniel, 1995; Suls & Rothman, 2002)”. Post University Psychotherapist Can Obtain Critical Information Discussion Reference: Kaplan, D. & Coogan, S. (n.d). The next advancement in counseling: The bio-psycho-social model. Retrieved from https://www.counseling.org/resources/library/vistas/vistas05/Vistas05.art03.pdf Metcalf, L., P. L.-S. L.-S. (2011). Marriage and family therapy: A practice-oriented approach . Springer Publishing Company. Samantha S. Dr. January and Class, To start, this student would like to talk about alcohol misuse and the different theories as to what causes it. This is because there is evidence that proposes that alcoholism consists of genetic predisposition, self-destructive behavior, and negative societal influences. Research shows different types of alcoholics. Specifically, there is a neurochemistry philosophy to alcoholism that suggest that it is a combination of both genetic factors as well as social and biological factors (Wallace, 2020). Medical family therapy is centered around the concept of accommodating to the family. Therefore, the therapist must have flexibility for where the therapy takes place. This is because some clients might feel more comfortable in their home, depending on if they have a physical disability or terminal illness (Metcalf, 2011). However, this student likes how this approach utilizes questions to ask in hopes to provide collaboration between both therapist and client(s). It is important to know that this approach does not use any specific model. In other words, it is the discretion of the therapists as to what model of family therapy to use with the family. The therapist needs to remember that the reason they are seeking therapy is because an illness has affected the family as a whole (Metcalf, 2011). In regards to alcoholism, the medical family model will help the family come to an understanding that the family member might have a predisposition to alcoholism through genes, as stated at the beginning of this post. Medical family therapists have to collaborate with other health care providers in order to ensure the most effective services are given to the client(s). This is because family therapists do not have the knowledge that primary care physicians or psychiatrists are going to have. Essentially, the family therapist will help the family broaden their understanding of the problem, alcoholism, in order to explore the best possible solutions for their family (Metcalf, 2011). The biopsychosocial model allows flexibility as it can be used by all specialities. Specifically, it has been said to be used for individual mental health counselor, career counseling, family counseling, and substance abuse counseling. Essentially, it drives the concept of problems having more than one underlying reason for it. This is because someone might be an alcoholic because of genetics. However, it could also be due to a result of peer pressure as a kid. For example, the biopsychosocial model suggests that when peer pressure is the cause of alcoholism, there is a deficit in that person’s development (Kaplan & Coogan, pg. 6). Post University Psychotherapist Can Obtain Critical Information Discussion References Metcalf, L. (2011). Marriage and family therapy: A practice-oriented approach. New York, N.Y.: Springer Pub. Co. Kaplan, D. M., & Coogan, S. L. (n.d.). The next advancement in counseling: The bio-psycho-social model. Retrieved from https://www.counseling.org/resources/library/vistas/vistas05/Vistas05.art03.pdf Wallace, J. (2020). APA PsycNet. Retrieved November 25, 2020, from https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1989-36901-001 Discussion #3 Narrative Therapy Samantha S. Dr. January and Class, This student likes the fact that narrative therapy acknowledges that people’s problems do not consume who they are. Officially, this is known as ‘externalizing problems’. This means that people’s problems are separate from themselves (Metcalf, 2011).This allows the individual to ‘rewrite’ their story without the problem being involved. Furthermore, clients can figure out if the issue is helping them or protecting them, opposed to hurting them. Essentially, it allows clients to re-create a story where the problem does not consume their daily life (Psychology Today, 2020). Moreover, another aspect this writer likes about narrative therapy is the intervention known as ‘unique outcomes’ because it allows the client to imagine a different ending to their story. Specifically, the therapist helps the client come to a realization that they are capable of being in control of having a better outcome. It allows the client(s) to look back at times when the current problem did not exist in order to use the same strategies used then (Metcalf, 2011). Furthermore, this writer likes narrative therapy because deconstruction allows people to see their ‘issues’ from a different perspective. A family who cannot agree on anything would benefit from this intervention of narrative therapy because the therapist will help each family member see things from a different perspective. In the case of a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this technique will allow him/her to realize that his hyper-active ‘energy’ does not control them. As a result, the child should be able to control his/her behavior better which in turn will make for happier parents (Metcalf, 2011). This student’s brother, who also has ADHD, has learned how to control his energy and emotions without medication. However, he was not always like that, as he used to take medication. The aspect of narrative therapy that this student would most likely integrate into her own model of family therapy is externalizing client’s problems. This is because it focuses on the fact that people are not their problems. This writer grew up in a home where every kid ‘had a problem’. This meant that they either suffered with autism, biplar disorder, anxiety disorder, or ADHD. However, her parents got licensed for foster care knowing they would probably receive children who had some kind of illness or disability. However, with time, her parents learned about the illness and worked with the child to manage the symptoms. This student likes the method of externalizing ones problems because someone can have a learning disability, but know how to overcome difficulties through experience. Furthemore, this student would least likely utlize the intervention known as ‘reauthoring’ because some clients might not benefit from this. This goes for individuals who have not overcome their experience of being sexually abused, especially if they are a child. For example, this technique allows the client to ‘reauthor’ their story that is a more positve one. In other words, it diminishes the initial ‘lablel’ that he/she may give themselves because of their experience. The text uses the example of a seuxal abuse victim only seeing herself as a ‘victim’, but using this approach would allow them to make the necessary changes in their life that does not involve the label of being a victim (Metcalf, 2011). This student does not like this approach for everyone, because some people may not be capable of seeing the ‘bright’ side if they are going through a severe depression because of it. References Linda Metcalf, P. L.-S. L.-S. (2011). Marriage and Family Therapy?: A Practice-Oriented Approach. Springer Publishing Company. Psychology Today. (2020). Narrative therapy. Retrieved November 25, 2020, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/therapy-types/narrative-therapy Darren E. Hello class and Professor When talking about the narrative therapy with families, the objective is to get the families to learn different options to view other than the thoughts or present behavior that is connected to the problems or dysfunctions within the family. The one thing that the writer admires about narrative therapy, is that you can combine other therapy models and techniques associated with those models.The three techniques that the writer admires and will use in his approach with families, first would be “Deconstructive” therapy. According to Metcalf, (2011), Micheal White has described deconstruction as methods that “exoticize the domestic” (Bourdieu, 1988, pp. xi-xii; White, 1992, p. 121). Deconstruction is intended to put our common assumptions and realities under challenge.”Deconstruction helps people release their stories or see them from different perspectives, so that the way they have been constructed becomes apparent” (Freedman & Combs, 1996, p. 120). The second technique that the writer will use as his approach when helping families is “Reauthoring”, according to Mecalf, (2011), when unique outcomes are recognized, people can be invited to ascribe meaning to them. Success in this ascription of meaning requires that the unique outcomes be organized into an alternative story or narrative. Many questions can be bought up that will assist in engaging people in this purpose of new meaning, or questions that actively involve them in, as Myerhoff (1982) would put it, “reauthoring” of their lives and their relationship. This also is to have the clients to be able to see situations in a different manner, so their story about their lives would change, because they will be able to look at the situation from a better aspect. The third technique that the writer would use as his approach when helping families is the “Outsider Witness Groups or Reflecting Teams”. According to Metcalf, (2011), outside witness groups are a form of the reflecting team. The use of reflecting teams in narrative therapy originated in the work of Tom Anderson. “The reversal of light and sound. The reflecting team often look at clients and families, then holds a conversation in front of the client and family in which they reflect on what they saw and heard. Together, they may arrive at new understanding of the family issues the way they perceive them to be and present it to the family for consideration. The family benefits from having an audience for their new preferred stories. This technique is a different technique to the writer, but the writer finds this technique to be very interesting that the writer believes that this process will help the family to take a look at themselves and the part they played in the problem, because sometimes people do things or behave in certain ways that they don’t see it themselves with having other people not seeing the same thing, instead having one person who will help them to believe in what others see in them. This will help them to change and become more of a positive person. Reference: Metcalf, L. (2011). Marriage and family therapy: A practice-oriented approach. New York, N.Y.: Springer Pub. Co. Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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