Professional development, computer science

Professional development, computer science Professional development, computer science The assignment is for discussion board and it is on Professional development and engagement which can occur in many different ways and venues. In this discussion board, (1) examine and discuss how professional development and engagement influences health care. (2) Why is it important for healthcare organizations to support and promote nurses in their professional development? Post according to the prompt(s) and the grading rubric. Your response must be supported with at least one source of professional nursing literature *Attached are two related articles for the assignment and rubrics for the assignment. *Also, this is a nursing class brekelmans_factors_influencing_continuing_professional_developmentelphi.ejtd.pdf developing_competency_to_sustain_ebp.pdf discussionboard_rubric_dr. The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at Factors influencing continuing professional development Factors influencing CPD A Delphi study among nursing experts Gerard Brekelmans Department of Research and Education, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Rob F. Poell 313 Received 16 March 2012 Revised 3 August 2012 Accepted 10 December 2012 Department of Human Resource Studies, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands, and Kees van Wijk HRM and Healthcare Research Group, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Abstract Purpose – The aim of this paper is to present an inventory of expert opinions on the factors that influence the participation of registered nurses in continuing professional development (CPD) activities. Design/methodology/approach – A Delphi study was conducted among 38 Dutch experts (nursing employers, managers, education institutions, and professional associations). Data collection comprised three rounds: experts completed two consecutive rounds of questionnaires and participated in a discussion meeting. Findings – Main influencing factors were: a CPD registration system, the attractiveness of the nursing profession, nurses’ identification with the nursing profession, opportunities for workplace learning, the line manager as role model, and attractive education programs. Research limitations/implications – Being part of a larger study, for the present paper only nursing experts were asked their opinion about shaping CPD for nurses. Further research should bring in the views of nurses themselves and investigate how the wider environment influences CPD participation. Practical implications – As all stakeholders were found to have their own roles in the CPD process, collaboration among employers, managers, education institutions, and professional associations will be crucial to create a conducive learning climate for nurses. HRD practitioners in healthcare can use the study findings to advise hospitals about implementing the right conditions to support CPD for nurses. Originality/value – A qualitative study using the Delphi method to discover factors influencing CPD in nursing had not been conducted before. Unlike many studies looking essentially at formal education, the present paper takes into account workplace learning among nurses as well. Keywords Continuing professional development, Delphi study, Nurses, The Netherlands Paper type Research paper In nursing literature the terms continuing professional development (CPD) and continuing professional education (CPE) are often used interchangeably (Perry, 1995). While CPE is more focused on didactic principles and formal educational contexts, CPD is more focused on self-directed learning, in which the nurse is the director of his European Journal of Training and Development Vol. 37 No. 3, 2013 pp. 313-325 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2046-9012 DOI 10.1108/03090591311312769 EJTD 37,3 314 or her own professional development (Grant and Stanton, 1998). CPE forms a significant element of CPD (Murphy et al., 2006) because tailor-made education programs are important to develop the right skills as a professional.Professional development, computer science In the present study we use the term CPD unless referring to or citing from specific literature where a different term is used. The American Nurses Association (ANA) describes CPD as: [. . .] a lifelong process of active participation by nurses in learning activities that assist in developing and maintaining their continuing competence, enhance their professional practice, and support achievement of their career goals (ANA, 2000). The Royal College of Nursing in the UK describes CPD as: [. . .] fundamental to the development of all health and social care practitioners, and (. . .) the mechanism through which high quality patient and client care is identified, maintained and developed (Royal College of Nursing, 2007, p. 2). The difference between these two descriptions is that the first one also includes career goals, which is a more personal motive. CPD plays an important role also in maintaining and improving the quality and efficiency of the healthcare system (Cooper, 2009). CPD is essential for nurses to enable them to provide safe and effective care; additionally, it improves job satisfaction and decreases burnout (Department of Health, 2003; Gould et al., 2006, van Wijk, 2007). Healthcare organizations need to demonstrate that their members are accountable, efficient, and effective. Employers want staff with appropriate skills and knowledge to deliver excellent care (O’Sullivan, 2004). It is therefore essential that employers create conditions for nurses that encourage them to take part in CPD activities (Hallin and Danielson, 2007). Speet and Francke (2004) indicate that more studies are necessary to identify what kind of individual professionalization support nurses need in addition to their initial education. Nurses participate in CPD for many reasons. In an earlier Dutch study, Speet and Francke (2004) showed that nurses deem CPD important. Working together, reflection and evaluation of daily practice, and working within legal requirements were mentioned by nurses as the most important reasons for participating in CPD activities. The least interest was given to “acting on the basis of theoretical notions”, “using (nursing) scientific research” and “making a contribution to professionalization of the nurse profession”. In countries such as the USA and the UK, nurses must demonstrate that they meet the established requirements for renewing their registration (Edmunds, 2007; Gallagher, 2006). In other countries, such as Australia, nurses have a professional responsibility through codes of professional conduct to remain competent (Gallagher, 2006). Under the influence of changes in healthcare in The Netherlands (technology and increasingly complex treatments) the nursing profession has changed over the last decades. The profession became recognized by law with the passing of the BIG Act (on professions in individual healthcare) in 1993. It has its own knowledge domain (Leistra et al., 1999) and education is institutionalized (Ministries of Education, Culture and Science, and Health, Well-Being and Sports, 1996). As in other countries, Dutch nurses must demonstrate that they remain competent since the passing of the BIG Act. Also the practice of nursing care has become more evidence based and less based on historical findings or trial and error.Professional development, computer science These all are features that a profession must have to distinguish themselves from other occupations (Freidson, 2001). The need to keep “up to date” professionally to ensure high quality of care has become of critical importance. CPD is a necessity to deliver safe and effective health care (Gould et al., 2006). As Speet and Francke (2004) pointed out, there is a difference between nurses that carry out their operations routinely and nurses that have a clear vision about the nature and the importance of their profession and about their own professional tasks and responsibilities. This last group uses current knowledge and insights that have been developed by the profession itself. They reflect on their roles, responsibilities, and motivation related to nursing and patient care. In summary, the importance of CPD is widely supported (Flanagan et al., 2000; van der Krogt, 2007). Whether or not nurses actually participate in CPD can be influenced by several factors, which will be outlined below. Influencing factors According to Johnson et al. (2011), investment in learning and development for nurses has a positive impact on patient care, the individual nurse, and healthcare organizations. At the individual level, the key factors appear to be awareness and understanding of CPD, conflicting demands on time, the availability of funding, and access to CPD resources (Hemmington, 2000). However, the individual motivation of the nurse to engage in CPD is fundamental (Ellis and Nolan, 2005; Hughes, 2005). Individual motivation is among the most significant factors identified as contributing to participation in CPD (Furze and Pearcey, 1999; Nolan et al., 1995).If the nurse is not motivated to change his or her behavior, no amount of CPD (whether mandatory or voluntary) will be effective (Gallagher, 2006). Professional development should be a belief (Lannon, 2007), which each nurse must take personal responsibility for. Impeding factors include the amount of time needed to commute to study venues, child care issues, and problems accessing facilities after working hours. The most critical factor, according to the nurses themselves, is the amount of private time that needs to be invested in CPD activities (Gibson, 1998; Gould et al., 2006). The demands of undertaking CPD conflict with domestic commitments, which is perceived as a barrier to achieving a desirable work-life balance (Grossman, 1998; Lawton and Wimpenny, 2003). At the level of the organization, the role of CPD is affected by its relationship to organizational strategy, the commitment of key decision makers, and the provision of an internal infrastructure for CPD. Without the support and encouragement of their employer, nurses will experience difficulties in their professional development. The overwhelming majority of nurses need support and advice for CPD (Hemmington, 2000; Murphy et al., 2006). A non-inclusive style of nursing management and lack of support from managers have been identified as barriers (Nolan et al., 1995). Another study showed that in a hierarchical organization with little support from colleagues, employees did not often practice any new ideas in their work (Daley, 2001). Various other factors also affect both the individual’s and the organization’s commitment to CPD and ability to implement CPD, including professional development planning, learning culture, and the dynamics of change (Hemmington, 2000).Professional development, computer science ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Professional development can take many forms; however, fostering an organizational climate in which development is integrated into everyday working practices was felt to be just as valuable in one study (Gibson, 1998). Nurses require a stimulating work environment, in which coaching and support to engage in CPD are Factors influencing CPD 315 EJTD 37,3 316 key components (Danielson and Berntsson, 2007). Teamwork and team spirit, the attitudes of the nurses themselves, possibilities to participate in training programs, and effective communication all stimulate CPD. High workload, lack of available literature at the workplace, and inefficient communication with the management are obstructing factors (Speet and Francke, 2004). A number of parties are involved in shaping and delivering CPD activities for nurses. Employers and managers are involved by creating the right conditions (time, money, learning environment), professional associations by indicating which standards of the profession must be met, and institutions by offering appropriate educational programs. Furthermore, professional associations can support nurses and healthcare organizations by giving them information about the issue of how professional development can be stimulated (Speet and Francke, 2004). These parties therefore all have different roles regarding CPD for nurses. As the literature review shows, many factors influencing CPD have been put forward in literature; however, what is not clear as yet is what are the most important factors influencing nurses’ participation in CPD. The aim of this study is to identify and prioritize, according to nursing experts, the factors that influence the participation of nurses in CPD activities. Method Research design To identify and prioritize the factors influencing nurses’ participation in CPD activities, a Delphi study (Brockhoff, 2002; McKenna, 1994) was carried out among a panel of 38 experts (Table I). The following definition of an expert was used: “one who has skill, experience, or extensive knowledge in his calling or in any special branch of learning” (Webster’s Online Dictionary, n.d.). Data collection in this study consisted of three Area of nursing n Professional Associations Dutch nurses Emergency room nurses Intensive care nurses Obstetric and gynecology nurses Oncology nurses Nurses in childcare Educational institutions Association of Education Centers in Healthcare Dutch Association of Educators 9 1 1 2 1 2 2 5 4 1 Management University hospital General hospital Regional hospital Table I. Participants in the Delphi study Employers National Federation of University Hospitals Note: N ¼ 38 23 7 6 10 1 1 rounds.The first two rounds consisted of written questionnaires (see Appendix) and the third round comprised a face-to-face discussion among the panel. Factors influencing CPD Sample Participants were selected for their nursing backgrounds in combination with their current jobs. They all had extensive domain knowledge. Representatives of professional organizations (chairmen), employers (policy officers and managers), and nursing education (educators and head of the department) were approached (N ¼ 46). Ultimately, 38 individuals agreed to participate. Professional development, computer science Table I describes the sample. Consent to participate was given by the boards of their organizations. 317 Instruments The data collection tools utilized for this study were largely based on previous research carried out by Gibson (1998). The three-round method promulgated by Gibson (1998) was also used in the present study with the exception of the third round, where a discussion meeting was used. The reason to hold this meeting rather than have yet another questionnaire (as Gibson did) is that discussion and debate were deemed to have a greater added value to the present study. In this way, common issues can be examined more thoroughly, depending of course on the number of actively participating experts (Brockhoff, 2002). Procedure and analysis In the first Delphi round, the members of the expert panel received a questionnaire containing nine open-ended questions (see Appendix). Their answers from the first round were summarized in mind maps by the first author. For each participant background (nurse associations, nursing educators, managers, and employers) a separate mind map was created. In the second round, the participants received a follow-up questionnaire (see Appendix) containing seven questions based on the summary from the first round. Answers from the second round were summarized in mind maps as well. As a next step, content analysis of the data gathered in the first two rounds was carried out by the first author. In the third round, a face-to-face discussion meeting was organized among the experts based on this content analysis. The aim of the discussion was to validate the findings from the first two rounds by reaching consensus about which main factors influence nurses’ participation in CPD. Additionally, a number of suggestions were put forward about the shaping of CPD and about the specific roles that the various stakeholders should play in supporting CPD for nurses. Results The results demonstrated a clear consensus among the experts on the need for nurses to participate in CPD activities. The different stakeholders did seem to hold different viewpoints on the definition of CPD. However, there was common ground in a focus on the responsibility and desire to deliver high-quality patient care. Consensus was ultimately reached on the following definition of CPD: CPD means systematically and deliberately developing one’s professional repertoire aimed at improving one’s performance as a professional and one’s quality of care as a nurse, member of the team, and of the organization, to the highest possible level. EJTD 37,3 318 Ultimately, CPD should affect the quality of care provided to clients by the nurses. In the opinion of the panel, the need for CPD is also located in the identity of the nursing profession. Inquisitive/analytical ability, initiative, flexibility, and critically reflective work behavior were the most important characteristics of the nurse profession mentioned by the experts. Furthermore, nurses have to be able to provide patient-centered care, work independently, and collaborate with other disciplines. As a member of a multidisciplinary team it is necessary to have a recognizable professional identity. In this way CPD is also important from a professional interest (development of the nursing profession).Professional development, computer science Influencing factors The results from the questionnaires and face-to-face discussion meeting demonstrated a clear consensus by the experts on the need for nurses to participate in CPD activities. There were six main factors that were deemed to influence participation, which will be illustrated below. (1) CPD registration system: Find a balance in attractive and compulsory education (Educator; School of Nursing, female 53 years) Encouragement and support were mentioned by line managers and educational institutions as playing a pivotal role. Nurse associations advocated a more mandatory way to encourage CPD, that is, the implementation by the Dutch NursingAssociation of a national CPD registration system with a minimum number of mandatory training credits each year. Currently, the Netherlands does not have such a system. (2) Attractiveness of the nursing profession: There is a need for CPD because nursing is a profession and not a vocation. The ongoing changes within healthcare scream for development (Employer; National Federation of University Hospitals, female 50 years). CPD also has a more commercial/human resource interest for retaining staff. This is important in times of shortages and, during the discussion, the following question was raised; what would affect the attractiveness of the nurse profession? Decreasing workload and increasing finance and opportunities for learning and personal development were mentioned. The most important recommendation to the employers was to create a strategic policy for CPD with good conditions and facilities to support this. Creating conditions to integrate nursing science in daily practice was mentioned as well. (3) Identification with the nursing profession: We can see the consequences of what we have neglected for a long time; it is too simple to now point to a lack of responsibility among the nurses (Nurse Manager; General Hospital, female 52 years). Mentality among nurses came up as an important factor. There was clear consensus advocating a change of mentality among nurses, from apathy to assuming responsibility for their own professional development. There was some support for the premise that most nurses do not undertake CPD activities by themselves. It was felt that the need for CPD is still not sufficiently recognized by nurses. Ageing was considered an important obstacle in CPD participation. The average age of nurses is increasing and as a result their motivation to invest in personal development is decreasing. The panel of experts also mentioned that nurses are by definition caretakers and less focused on themselves and their own situation. This personal characteristic seems to be ingrained in the nursing profession. A recommendation by the panel was to encourage nurses to take more responsibility in taking part in CPD activities and clearly indicate what support they need, explore the opportunities at the workplace, and use different ways of learning to support CPD (e.g. reflection, 3608 feedback, and peer assessment). Most of all, nurses should be proud to be a nurse and show what they do and how they do it (professional standards and registration). (4) Opportunities for workplace learning: Every nurse learns informally continually, so explicit informal learning (Educator; School of Nursing, male 45 years). A lack of financial resources for participation in training programs, a heavy workload, lack of time for …Professional development, computer science Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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