Route to Class Questions Discussion

Route to Class Questions Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Route to Class Questions Discussion Read Chapter 9 and answer the following questions in order. Attached PDF book and PowerPoint for Chapter 9. Route to Class Questions Discussion Style: APA References: minimum 3 including the book PLEASE MAKE SURE THE ANSWERS ARE WELL ELABORATE AND THE CONTENT IS WELL COVER WITH ENOUGH INFORMATION. I am in Florida in case you need to know. Please contact me if you have any questions. Thank you 1. Try taking a different route to class the next time it meets. Before you do this, think about how many changes, large and small, you will have to make to do this. a-Will you have to leave earlier to be in class on time? b-Will you meet different people on your way to class? c-See different sights? d-Would you change your route to class on the day of the final exam? e-Why or why not? Summarize the positives and negatives of this small change. Relate your responses to this change to the way staff nurses feel when an administrator makes what he or she thinks is a “minor” change. 2. Think about a change that has occurred in your life. Some examples may be a change of role, a move, a marriage, a birth, a divorce, or a death. a-How did you react to the change? b-Would you have reacted differently if you had had more information? c-Using Lewin’s model, describe the basic elements in the situation and how you eventually achieved a comfortable outcome. attachment_1 attachment_2 Chapter 9 People and the Process of Change Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Change • A natural phenomenon • Macro- and micro-change Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company The Process of Change • The comfort zone – Unfreezing – Change – Refreezing – Return to new comfort zone Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company The Change Process Unfreezing Change Refreezing ? ? ? Comfort ? Discomfort ? New zone zone zone Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Sources of Resistance to Change • Technical concerns • Psychosocial needs • Position and power Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Receptivity to Change • Recognize differences in preferences for certainty. • Speak to people’s feelings. • Stories and Drama vs. Statistics. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Resistance • Recognizing resistance • Lowering resistance – Information dissemination – Disconfirmation of currently held beliefs – Psychological safety – Command Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Dictating Change • Effective in many situations • Communicates a sense of urgency • Change may be rapid but without a lasting commitment Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Active Resistance to Change • • • • Attacking the idea Refusal to change Arguing against change Organizing resistance of other people Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Passive Resistance to Change • • • • Avoiding discussion Ignoring the change Refusing to commit to the change Agreeing but not acting Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Strategies to Overcome Resistance • • • • Point out similarities. Express approval. Recognize competence and skill. Provide assurance. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Strategies • Suggest new opportunities. • Express value of contributions. • Ensure involvement. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Strategies (cont’d) • Provide opportunities for expression. • Allow time for practice. • Provide a climate of acceptance. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Four Phases of Planned Change Design the change ? Plan the implementation ? Implement the change ? Integrate the change Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Design the Change • • • • • What is the purpose? Is the change necessary? Is the change technically correct? Will this work? Is there a better way? Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Plan the Implementation • Why is there resistance? • Is the resistance justified? • What can be done to prevent or overcome resistance? Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Implement the Change • • • • What is the magnitude? What is the complexity? What is the pace? What is the current stress level? Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Integrate the Change • Is the change integrated into everyday operations? • Are people comfortable with it? • Is it well accepted? Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company Conclusion • Your leadership will influence how change is handled. • Change presents an opportunity for professional growth and development. • View change in a positive way. Copyright © 2015. F.A. Davis Company • Sally A. Weiss and Ruth M. Tappen • • • • • • • •• • • ••• • ••• •• ••• •••••••••• •••• • •• • • I • • • •• • • • • • ••••••••• •• •• • • • • . Essentials of Nursing Leadership and Management • •• • • • • Essentials of Nursing Leadership and Management SIXTH EDITION 3663_FM_i-xii.indd i Process CyanProcess CyanProcess MagentaProcess MagentaProcess Yellow YellowProcess Process Black 9/17/2014 3:01:42 PM 3663_Unit I_0001-0002.indd 2 9/16/2014 11:25:22 AM Essentials of Nursing Leadership and Management SIXTH EDITION Sally A. Weiss, MSN, EdD, RN, CNE, ANEF Professor of Nursing Nova Southeastern University Nursing Department Fort Lauderdale, Florida Ruth M. Tappen, EdD, RN, FAAN Christine E. Lynn Eminent Scholar and Professor Florida Atlantic University College of Nursing Boca Raton, Florida 3663_FM_i-xii.indd iii Process CyanProcess CyanProcess MagentaProcess MagentaProcess Yellow YellowProcess Process Black 9/17/2014 3:01:43 PM F. A. Davis Company 1915 Arch Street Philadelphia, PA 19103 www.fadavis.com Copyright © 2015 by F. A. Davis Company Copyright © 2015, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2001, 1998 by F. A. Davis Company. All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. No part of it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America Last digit indicates print number: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Acquisitions Editor, Nursing: Megan Klim Developmental Editor: Laurie Sparks Director of Content Development: Darlene D. Pedersen Content Project Manager: Echo Gerhart Electronic Project Editor: Katherine Crowley Design and Illustration Manager: Carolyn O’Brien As new scientific information becomes available through basic and clinical research, recommended treatments and drug therapies undergo changes. The author(s) and publisher have done everything possible to make this book accurate, up to date, and in accord with accepted standards at the time of publication. The author(s), editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or for consequences from application of the book, and make no warranty, expressed or implied, in regard to the contents of the book. Any practice described in this book should be applied by the reader in accordance with professional standards of care used in regard to the unique circumstances that may apply in each situation. The reader is advised always to check product information (package inserts) for changes and new information regarding dose and contraindications before administering any drug. Caution is especially urged when using new or infrequently ordered drugs. Library of Congress Control Number: 2014945714 Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by F. A. Davis Company for users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the fee of $.25 per copy is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For those organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is: 978-0-8036-3663-7/15 0 + $.25. 3663_FM_i-xii.indd iv Process CyanProcess CyanProcess MagentaProcess MagentaProcess Yellow YellowProcess Process Black 9/17/2014 3:01:45 PM Dedication To my granddaughter Sydni and my grandson Logan, who remind me how important it is to nurture our young nurses and help them learn and grow. —SALLY A. WEISS To students, colleagues, family, and friends, who have taught me so much about leadership. — RUTH M. TAPPEN v 3663_FM_i-xii.indd v Process CyanProcess CyanProcess MagentaProcess MagentaProcess Yellow YellowProcess Process Black 9/17/2014 3:01:45 PM 3663_Unit I_0001-0002.indd 2 9/16/2014 11:25:22 AM Preface We are delighted to bring our readers this Sixth Edition of Essentials of Nursing Leadership and Management. This new edition has been updated to reflect the dynamic health care environment, safety initiatives, and changes in nursing practice. As in our previous editions, the content, examples, and diagrams were designed with the goal of assisting the new graduate to make the transition to professional nursing practice. The Sixth Edition of Essentials of Nursing Leadership and Management focuses on the necessary knowledge and skills needed by the staff nurse as an integral member of the interprofessional healthcare team and manager of patient care. Issues related to setting priorities, delegation, quality improvement, legal parameters of nursing practice, and ethical issues are updated for this edition. This edition focuses on the current quality and safety issues and initiatives impacting the current health-care environment. We continue to bring you comprehensive, practical information on developing a nursing career. Updated information on leading, managing, followership, and workplace issues continue to be included. Essentials of Nursing Leadership and Management provides a strong foundation for the beginning nurse leader. We would like to thank the people at F. A. Davis for their assistance and our contributors, reviewers, and students for their guidance and support. —SALLY A. WEISS —RUTH M. TAPPEN vii 3663_FM_i-xii.indd vii Process CyanProcess CyanProcess MagentaProcess MagentaProcess Yellow YellowProcess Process Black 9/17/2014 3:01:46 PM 3663_Unit I_0001-0002.indd 2 9/16/2014 11:25:22 AM Contributor PATRICIA BRADLEY, MED, PHD, RN Coordinator, Internationally Educated Nurses Program Faculty, Nursing Department York University Toronto, Ontario, Canada Reviewers WENDY GREENSPAN, MSN, RN, CCRN, CNE Assistant Professor Rockland Community College Suffem, New York CLAIRE MEGGS, MSN, RN Associate Professor Lincoln Memorial University Harrogate, Tennessee PAULA HOPPER, MSN, RN, CNE Professor of Nursing Jackson Community College Jackson, Mississippi LUISE SPEAKMAN, PHD, RN Adjunct Faculty, Nursing Cape Cod Community College West Barnstable, Massachusetts JENNIFER SUGG, RN, BSN, MSN, CCRN Nursing Instructor Wayne Community College Goldsboro, North Carolina ix 3663_FM_i-xii.indd ix Process CyanProcess CyanProcess MagentaProcess MagentaProcess Yellow YellowProcess Process Black 9/17/2014 3:01:46 PM 3663_Unit I_0001-0002.indd 2 9/16/2014 11:25:22 AM Table of Contents unit 1 Professional Considerations 1 chapter 1 Leadership and Followership 3 chapter 2 Manager 17 chapter 3 Nursing Practice and the Law 27 chapter 4 Questions of Values and Ethics 49 unit 2 Working Within an Organization 69 chapter 5 Organizations, Power, and Empowerment 71 chapter 6 Communicating With Others and Working With the Interprofessional Team 87 chapter 7 Delegation and Prioritization of Client Care 103 chapter 8 Dealing With Problems and Conflict 121 chapter 9 People and the Process of Change 133 unit 3 Career Considerations 145 chapter 10 Issues of Quality and Safety 147 chapter 11 Promoting a Healthy Work Environment unit 4 Professional Issues 203 chapter 12 Your Nursing Career 205 chapter 13 Evolution of Nursing as a Profession chapter 14 Looking to the Future 235 173 225 xi 3663_FM_i-xii.indd xi Process CyanProcess CyanProcess MagentaProcess MagentaProcess Yellow YellowProcess Process Black 9/17/2014 3:01:46 PM xii ? Table of Contents Appendices appendix 1 Codes of Ethics for Nurses 247 American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses Canadian Nurse Association Code of Ethics for Registered Nurses The International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics for Nurses appendix 2 Standards Published by the American Nurses Association 249 appendix 3 Guidelines for the Registered Nurse in Giving, Accepting, or Rejecting a Work Assignment 251 3663_FM_i-xii.indd xii Process Route to Class Questions Discussion CyanProcess CyanProcess MagentaProcess MagentaProcess Yellow YellowProcess Process Black 9/17/2014 3:01:46 PM unit 1 Professional Considerations chapter 1 Leadership and Followership chapter 2 Manager chapter 3 Nursing Practice and the Law chapter 4 Questions of Values and Ethics 3663_Unit I_0001-0002.indd 1 Process CyanProcess CyanProcess MagentaProcess MagentaProcess Yellow YellowProcess Process Black 9/15/2014 4:37:34 PM 3663_Unit I_0001-0002.indd 2 9/16/2014 11:25:22 AM chapter 1 Leadership and Followership OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, the student should be able to: ? Define the terms leadership and followership. ? Discuss the importance of effective leadership and followership for the new nurse. ? Discuss the qualities and behaviors that contribute to effective leadership. ? Discuss the qualities and behaviors that contribute to effective followership. OUTLINE Leadership Are You Ready to Be a Leader? Leadership Defined What Makes a Person a Leader? Leadership Theories Trait Theories Behavioral Theories Nurses study leadership to learn how to work well with other people. We work with an extraordinary variety of people: technicians, aides, unit managers, housekeepers, patients, patients’ families, physicians, respiratory therapists, physical therapists, social workers, psychologists, and more. In this chapter, the most prominent leadership theories are introduced. Then, the characteristics and behaviors that can make you, a new nurse, an effective leader and follower are discussed. Leadership Are You Ready to Be a Leader? You may be thinking, “I’m just beginning my career in nursing. How can I be expected to be a leader now?” This is an important question. You will need time to refine your clinical skills and learn how to function in a new environment. But you can begin to assume some leadership functions right away within your new nursing roles. In fact, leadership should be seen as a dimension of nursing practice (Scott & Miles, 2013). Consider the following example: Task Versus Relationship Motivation Theories Emotional Intelligence Situational Theories Transformational Leadership Moral Leadership Caring Leadership Qualities of an Effective Leader Behaviors of an Effective Leader Followership Followership Defined Becoming a Better Follower Managing Up Conclusion Billie Thomas was a new staff nurse at Green Valley Nursing Care Center. After orientation, she was assigned to a rehabilitation unit with high admission and discharge rates. Billie noticed that admissions and discharges were assigned rather haphazardly. Anyone who was “free” at the moment was directed to handle them. Sometimes, unlicensed assistant personnel were directed to admit or discharge residents. Billie believed that this was inappropriate because they are not prepared to do assessments and they had no preparation for discharge planning. Billie had an idea how discharge planning could be improved but was not sure that she should bring it up because she was so new. “Maybe they’ve already thought of this,” she said to a former classmate. They began to talk about what they had learned in their leadership course before graduation. “I just keep hearing our instructor saying, ‘There’s only one manager, but anyone can be a leader.’ ” “If you want to be a leader, you have to act on your idea. Why don’t you talk with your nurse manager?” her friend asked. “Maybe I will,” Billie replied. Billie decided to speak with her nurse manager, an experienced rehabilitation nurse who seemed not 3 3663_Chapter 1_0003-0016.indd 3 Process CyanProcess CyanProcessRoute to Class Questions Discussion MagentaProcess MagentaProcess Yellow YellowProcess Process Black 9/15/2014 4:36:35 PM 4 unit 1 ? Professional Considerations only approachable but also open to new ideas. “I have been so busy getting our new electronic health record system on line before the surveyors come that I wasn’t paying attention to that,” the nurse manager told her. “I’m glad you brought it to my attention.” Billie’s nurse manager raised the issue at the next executive meeting, giving credit to Billie for having brought it to her attention. The other nurse managers had the same response. “We were so focused on the new electronic health record system that we overlooked that. We need to take care of this situation as soon as possible. Billie Thomas has leadership potential.” Leadership Defined Successful nurse leaders are those who engage others to work together effectively in pursuit of a shared goal. Examples of shared goals in nursing would be providing excellent care, reducing infection rates, designing cost-saving procedures, or challenging the ethics of a new policy. Leadership is a much broader concept than is management. Although managers need to be leaders, management itself is focused specifically on achievement of organizational goals. Leadership, on the other hand: . . . occurs whenever one person attempts to influence the behavior of an individual or group—up, down, or sideways in the organization—regardless of the reason. It may be for personal goals or for the goals of others, and these goals may or may not be congruent with organizational goals. Leadership is influence (Hersey & Campbell, 2004, p. 12). In order to lead, one must develop three important competencies: (1) diagnose: ability to understand the situation you want to influence, (2) adapt: make changes that will close the gap between the current situation and what you are hoping to achieve, and (3) communicate. No matter how much you diagnose or adapt, if you cannot communicate effectively, you will probably not meet your goal (Hersey & Campbell, 2004). What Makes a Person a Leader? Leadership Theories There are many different ideas about how a person becomes a good leader. Despite years of research on this subject, no one idea has emerged as the clear 3663_Chapter 1_0003-0016.indd 4 Process CyanProcess CyanProcess MagentaProcess MagentaProcess Yellow YellowProcess Process Black winner. Route to Class Questions Discussion The reason for this may be that different qualities and behaviors are most important in different situations. In nursing, for example, some situations require quick thinking and fast action. Others require time to figure out the best solution to a complicated problem. Different leadership qualities and behaviors are needed in these two instances. The result is that there is not yet a single best answer to the question, “What makes a person a leader?” Consider some of the best-known leadership theories and the many qualities and behaviors that have been identified as those of the effective nurse leader (Pavitt, 1999; Tappen, 2001): Trait Theories At one time or another, you have probably heard someone say, “She’s a born leader.” Many believe that some people are natural leaders, while others are not. It is true that leadership may come more easily to some than to others, but everyone can be a leader, given the necessary knowledge and skill. An important 5-year study of 90 outstanding leaders by Warren Bennis published in 1984 identified four common traits. These traits hold true today: 1. Management of attention. These leaders communicated a sense of goal direction that attracted followers. 2. Management of meaning. These leaders created and communicated meaning and purpose. 3. Management of trust. These leaders demonstrated reliability and consistency. 4. Management of self. These leaders knew themselves well and worked within their strengths and weaknesses (Bennis, 1984). Behavioral Theories The behavioral theories focus on what the leader does. One of the most influential behavioral theories is concerned with leadership style (White & Lippitt, 1960) (Table 1-1). The three styles are: 1. Autocratic leadership (also called directive, controlling, or authoritarian). The autocratic leader gives orders and makes decisions for the group. For example, when a decision needs to be made, an autocratic leader says, “I’ve decided that this is the way we’re going to solve our 9/15/2014 4:36:37 PM chapter 1 ? Leadership and Followership 5 table 1-1 Comparison of Autocratic, Democratic, and Laissez-Faire Leadership Styles Amount of freedom Amount of control Decision making Leader activity level Assumption of responsibility Output of the group Efficiency Autocratic Democratic Laissez-Faire Little freedom High control By the leader High Leader High quantity, good quality Very efficient Moderate freedom Moderate control Leader and group together High Shared Creative, high quality Less efficient than autocratic style Muc … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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