San Jose State University GEOG 112 Covid 19 Pandemic Discussion

San Jose State University GEOG 112 Covid 19 Pandemic Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON San Jose State University GEOG 112 Covid 19 Pandemic Discussion Develop a three-point, prioritized plan. Also, include in your discussion a policy that addresses the health directive for limiting peoples’ freedom of movement and group assembly. San Jose State University GEOG 112 Covid 19 Pandemic Discussion One discussion post soliciting questions or ideas regarding how to respond to the questions posed above. An example is to ask me or your fellow classmates a question, clarification, or need for more parameters. (3 points) An additional quality response that clearly demonstrates you are conversing with your fellow classmates (1 point) A third quality response that clearly demonstrates you are conversing with your fellow classmates. (1 point) One lengthy post that answers the questions posed above, Which health organization you represent. (1 point) thesis statement outlining your prioritized plan andreasons why. (1 points) the three items, why implemented, and how will they beimplemented (6 points) address public concerns regarding limiting freemovement or free assembly (1 point) concluding statement (1 point) attachment_1 attachment_2 attachment_3 Introduction & Backgroun The current assignment is modi ed from a previous semester’s essay related to a hypothetical pandemic scenario based on the In uenza A virus subtype H7N9 that broke out in China in March 2013. Previous assignments for Geography 112 and Environmental Studies/Geography 121 were based on hypotheticals. Now we are experiencing the real thing The Scenari You work for either the US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO), or a state or local public health organization. The deadly novel coronavirus (Covid-19) broke out in China sometime late last year and has spread to the world, thus a pandemic. The latest outbreak is, according authorities (and my interpretation of the CDC graph) has the potential to overwhelm the healthcare systems with new cases and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions How might you, or your recruited team, address the current round of the outbreak? Do you let nature take its course and allow for vulnerable population subgroups deaths, mandate stricter quarantines (Links to an external site.) that are in place now, prioritize all efforts to track, understand, or fast-track vaccine trials to prevent more deaths, or something else . . . fi d o ? fl Develop a three-point, prioritized plan. Also, include in your discussion a policy that addresses the health directive for limiting peoples’ freedom of movement and group assembly What I want to see is the following , fi ) ) ) ) : ) ) ) ) 1. One discussion post soliciting questions or ideas regarding how to respond to the questions posed above. An example is to ask me or your fellow classmates a question, clari cation, or need for more parameters. (3 points 2. An additional quality response that clearly demonstrates you are conversing with your fellow classmates (1 point 3. A third quality response that clearly demonstrates you are conversing with your fellow classmates. (1 point 4. One lengthy post that answers the questions posed above • Which health organization you represent. (1 point • thesis statement outlining your prioritized plan and reasons why. (1 points • the three items, why implemented, and how will they be implemented (6 points • address public concerns regarding limiting free movement or free assembly (1 point • concluding statement (1 point Zoonotic Diseases By: Sarah Glazer Pub. Date: June 26, 2020 Access Date: November 30, 2020 Source URL: http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2020062600 ©2020 CQ Press, An Imprint of SAGE Publishing. All Rights Reserved. CQ Press is a registered trademark of Congressional Quarterly Inc. ©2020 CQ Press, An Imprint of SAGE Publishing. All Rights Reserved. Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Background ……………….. . . . . . . . Situation Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 ……………….. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Outlook ……………….. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Pro/Con ……………….. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Chronology ……………….. . . . . . San Jose State University GEOG 112 Covid 19 Pandemic Discussion .Features Short . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 ……………….. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Bibliography ……………….. . . . . Next The . . . . .Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 ……………….. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Contacts ……………….. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Footnotes ……………….. . . . . . . the About . . . Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 ……………….. Page 2 of 29 Zoonotic Diseases CQ Researcher ©2020 CQ Press, An Imprint of SAGE Publishing. All Rights Reserved. Introduction The pandemic circling the globe is only the latest instance of a disease that jumped from animals to humans, known as a zoonotic disease. COVID-19 likely came from a bat; AIDS, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Ebola, West Nile and Lyme disease also originated in animals. Zoonotic disease outbreaks have been occurring more often since the 1940s as an expanding human population pushes deeper into forests for hunting, agriculture, mining and housing. Demand for exotic meat also brings live wildlife to food markets, where they can transmit viruses to other animals and humans. How to prevent the next pandemic is a matter of vigorous debate: Some scientists are pushing for more research into animal viruses, while others stress stopping human activities, such as deforestation, that can spur contagion. Conservation groups urge a ban on the wildlife trade, but critics say that will only encourage a black market. Some researchers and environmentalists say preserving wilderness and biological diversity is key to preventing more outbreaks. A bamboo rat, still in its bamboo home, is offered for sale at an outdoor food market in Myanmar. Scientists say the sale of such animals in markets across Asia plays a major role in the spread of zoonotic diseases, which travel from animals to humans. (Getty Images/LightRocket/Jerry Redfern) Overview In the second week of January, a 61-year-old man died from a mysterious pneumonia that was causing a spate of illnesses from an unknown virus in Wuhan, China. The man was a regular customer at Wuhan’s giant seafood market, which also sold exotic animals, some live, for meat. Of the first 41 cases of pneumonia tied to the viral infection that first arose in December, two-thirds had either been workers or customers at the market.1 According to a widely circulated menu and to reports from vendors and observers, offerings at the market included snakes, dogs, baby crocodiles, arctic foxes, raccoon dogs, bamboo rats and civet cats, sometimes butchered on site.2 At such Asian markets, exotic animals are often stacked in cages on top of animals they would never encounter in nature. Exchanging excretion and saliva under stressful conditions makes animals prone to contagion and creates a petri dish for viruses to jump from one species to another, scientists say.San Jose State University GEOG 112 Covid 19 Pandemic Discussion Speculation was rampant that the Wuhan market was the source of the virus that causes COVID-19, which erupted into a pandemic that has killed hundreds of thousands of people across the globe. But in recent months, scientists have cast doubt on the theory. They instead fear that the virus jumped earlier from an animal to a human, perhaps in the wild, and that the market’s crowded conditions simply helped to spread the virus from one infected human to many others.3 Page 3 of 29 Zoonotic Diseases CQ Researcher ©2020 CQ Press, An Imprint of SAGE Publishing. All Rights Reserved. A COVID-19 patient is transported by ambulance to Mt. Sinai Morningside hospital in New York City on May 18. The virus is only the most recent example of a disease that originated in animals and then spread widely and lethally among humans. (Getty Images/NurPhoto/John Lamparski) Regardless of what exactly happened, COVID-19 is just the most recent example of a growing threat to human health — zoonotic diseases, which leap from animals to humans and which, if the virus mutates successfully in humans, can also be transmitted from human to human. Researchers believe COVID-19 spilled over from a horseshoe bat in China, possibly to another intermediate animal, such as an endangered pangolin, considered a culinary luxury in China, and then to humans.4 Scientists have long warned of a new epidemic of zoonotic diseases, but it is only recently that the environmental roots, such as human encroachment on wild habitats, are gaining the kind of public and media attention given to climate change. Some of the most well-known epidemics originated with animals, including HIV (from chimpanzees), severe acute respiratory syndrome or SARS (from bats) and Middle East respiratory syndrome or MERS (from camels). An epidemic is a disease that affects a large number of people within a community or region, as opposed to a pandemic, which affects most of the globe. Scientists say the frequency of such outbreaks has been increasing in recent years. According to estimates, 60 to 75 percent of newly emerging infectious diseases can be traced to animals and more than 70 percent of those come from wildlife.5 In fact, scientists have been predicting a zoonotic epidemic similar to COVID-19 for more than a decade, and some even targeted coronaviruses from bats, which likely produced both SARS and COVID-19. For example, in 2007, a Hong Kong scientists’ study of SARS said the presence of SARS-like coronaviruses in horseshoe bats, “together with the culture of eating exotic mammals in southern China, is a time bomb.”6 Andrew Cunningham, a professor of wildlife epidemiology at the Institute of Zoology, London, said in March, “The emergence and spread of COVID-19 was not only predictable, it was predicted [in the sense that] there would be another viral emergence from wildlife that would be a public health threat.”7 Some scientists and advocacy groups say the spread of both new and existing zoonotic diseases can be attributed to declining biodiversity in natural animal habitats, as humans slash forests for agriculture, mining, roads or housing. San Jose State University GEOG 112 Covid 19 Pandemic Discussion Other studies pinpoint increasing human contact with wild animals as the root of growing risks. Page 4 of 29 Zoonotic Diseases CQ Researcher ©2020 CQ Press, An Imprint of SAGE Publishing. All Rights Reserved. With the human population growing and global trade and travel expanding, the human activities that trigger outbreaks “are accelerating and magnifying globally, which is why we’re seeing more and more outbreaks happening and will continue to,” says Jonathan Epstein, one of the researchers who discovered that horseshoe bats were the likely origin of the SARS virus, and who is vice president for science and outreach at EcoHealth Alliance, an environmental health research group in New York. “The single biggest cause of these epidemics is people…. We’re encroaching on natural systems and disrupting them, and it’s leading to epidemics and pandemics.” Yet traditional public health approaches to disease outbreaks have ignored the role played by environmental destruction, says Samuel S. Myers, an environmental health scientist at Harvard University’s School of Public Health, who is promoting a new discipline, planetary health, to unite environmental health and medicine.8 “The way we’re transforming our natural systems is a dominant driver of the global burden of disease,” he says, but “we’re completely unequipped to confront these [environmental] problems as a public health community.” That problem extends to the approach to pandemics such as COVID-19 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), says Howard Frumkin, a former director of the CDC’s National Center for Environmental Health and professor emeritus at the University of Washington School of Public Health. “If you focus on vaccines and public health strategies like contact tracing and isolation, you may overlook some of the root causes of diseases that lie outside the biomedical world,” he says. Along similar lines, several bills in Congress aim to promote greater collaboration among environmental experts, veterinarians and human health experts to anticipate and tackle future pandemic threats in an approach known as One Health.9 Some scientists are trying to raise money to create a comprehensive library of zoonotic viruses, saying such a repository could predict and prevent pandemics. But critics point out that similar efforts along those lines, including one funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), failed to find COVID-19.10 “It’s hard to claim success in searching the world over for the virus that will cause the next pandemic when this virus eluded all that tremendous effort,” says Richard S. Ostfeld, a disease ecologist at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, a private research center in Millbrook, N.Y. Page 5 of 29 Zoonotic Diseases CQ Researcher ©2020 CQ Press, An Imprint of SAGE Publishing. All Rights Reserved. Many scientists agree that the dramatic changes humans have imposed on the planet as a result of world population growth is one major reason for the increase in new zoonotic diseases. “The 21st century is paying the price for what happened in the 20th century,” when the world population grew from 1.6 billion to more than 6 billion and humans pushed deeper into virgin forests, says Dennis Carroll a former USAID official who oversaw efforts to forecast zoonotic disease outbreaks.11 “As we’re accommodating this increasing population, we’re seeing the increasing frequency and intensity of these spillover events” when diseases leap from animals to humans, he says. As the world’s population heads toward a projected 11 billion people in 2100, developing countries are increasing their wealth and their appetite for meat, with an accompanying demand for more agricultural land in the vast tropical rain forests of the Amazon and Congo River basins.12 The loss of biodiversity that results is a major cause of zoonotic disease, according to Ostfeld. San Jose State University GEOG 112 Covid 19 Pandemic Discussion As humans cut down and transform virgin forests, coming into extended contact with displaced wild animals and their viruses for the first time, “we’ve made [these regions] increasingly dangerous by disturbing them and fragmenting the natural habitats,” he says. But other scientists question Ostfeld’s biodiversity theory, arguing that urbanization and growing wealth helped reduce infectious disease rates between 1990 and 2010.13 “Cities bring people into close contact with doctors, make it efficient for public health to do mosquito spraying, vaccinations, offer drugs to infected people. Cities are good for people’s health,” says Chelsea L. Wood, assistant professor at the University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences. “When you stack up biodiversity against all these other drivers, biodiversity is totally inconsequential.” Experts also disagree on whether governments should ban the trade in exotic animals for human consumption. “We’re creating the perfect storm. If you’re a virus whose goal is to spread, you couldn’t design a better system to aid and abet a pandemic than these wildlife markets” in Wuhan and across Asia, said Steven Osofsky, professor of wildlife health and health policy at the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine. “A lot of these pathogens are meeting species they’ve never met before, and that’s when we have these viral jumps — and create the situation we’re in now.”14 Some researchers and environmentalists argue that certain kinds of well-regulated legal wildlife trade pose little danger of transmitting disease, but other environmental groups dispute that. As scientists, conservationists and members of government in the United States and around the world debate the threat of zoonotic disease, here are some of the issues they are considering: Is loss of biodiversity increasing the spread of diseases from animals to humans? Environmental advocacy groups and some scientists say human incursion into natural habitats is causing viruses that circulate harmlessly in animals to jump increasingly to humans, with sometimes fatal consequences. Other scientists, however, argue that the loss of biodiversity is not necessarily a bad thing because it can reduce the populations of disease-carrying animals. A widely cited study by British and American ecologists estimated that outbreaks of newly emerging zoonotic diseases are occurring about two to three times more frequently per decade than in the 1940s.15 Page 6 of 29 Zoonotic Diseases CQ Researcher ©2020 CQ Press, An Imprint of SAGE Publishing. All Rights Reserved.San Jose State University GEOG 112 Covid 19 Pandemic Discussion That increasing frequency is “pretty clearly linked to our human footprint and what we do on the planet — building roads, cutting down forests, global trade and travel — all increasing exponentially,” says Peter Daszak, president of EcoHealth Alliance, a nongovernmental research organization, and a co-author of the study. A fire cleared out this swath of Amazonian rain forest near Porto Velho, Brazil, in 2019. Clearing forestland for human activities has contributed to the spread of zoonotic diseases, scientists say. (AFP/Getty Images/Carl De Souza) “In some areas where there is a high risk of emerging zoonotic disease, maybe we shouldn’t cut the forest down and have people move in and eat wildlife,” he says, pointing to his group’s research finding that cutting down tropical forests in Asia for palm oil is leading to workers contracting malaria and occasionally a new zoonotic disease. Two New York-based researchers argue that the reduced diversity of animals that results from such human activity is leading to an increase in zoonotic disease and that conserving biodiversity can protect against such new diseases emerging and spreading. The researchers, Ostfeld of the Cary Institute and Felicia Keesing, professor of science, mathematics and computing at Bard College in Annandale-onHudson, N.Y., say they have demonstrated this theory in their study of Lyme disease in the U.S. Northeast. (See Short Feature.) The number of ticks carrying the disease is lower in undisturbed forests — areas with more animal diversity — than in the fragmented forests typical of suburban sprawl, their research finds. They theorize that is because expansive forests can support more large predators of the mice that are the hosts of Lyme disease, and can also support opossums, which typically remove the ticks through grooming and also transmit Lyme to far fewer ticks than mice do. 16 “The species we lose in the Northeast when we lose biodiversity are foxes and bobcats, and those species actually protect us because they keep mouse numbe … will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service . Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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