Sports Journal Article Review

Sports Journal Article Review ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Sports Journal Article Review For this assignment you must create a 400-600 word arrival review using a article and template(which I will provide). Sports Journal Article Review One paragraph should summarize the key concepts, thesis, and main focus of the article. A paragraph about the findings or what the article adds or contributes to our understanding of sports communication. And a paragraph of comments, insights, and implications that demonstrate your understanding of the article. Additionally, you will need to prepare 2 discussion questions about the topic or article that you can pose to the class before you share the article so the class can engage in discussion Requirements: 400-600 words attachment_1 attachment_2 “Article Title” by Author(s) Journal Article Review 1/24/20 TJ Martin KEY CONCEPTS / MAIN FOCUS The main focus of this article was to provide an overview of “critiques, moves, and junctures that have specifically retheorized culture and communication from a critical intercultural communication perspective” (p. 19). Overall, examining this progression has led to the development of what is referred to as the “fifth moment” where scholars “engage issues of power, context, and ideology in studying intercultural communication” (p. 19). The first juncture involves understanding how context and history are related to intercultural communication practices and how “historical context constitutes and shapes the very foundation and formation of culture, cultural identity, and the communication practices and expressions situation within cultures” (p. 23). The second juncture challenges how culture was “predominantly conceptualized as an entity contained within and synonymous with nation…or nation-state,” and explains how “such generalizations homogenize culture as a predictable entity (p. 24). The third juncture outlines how culture is more than just a social construction or a variable for social science “but a site of struggle where various communication meanings are constructed” and challenge the idea that intercultural communication is “an ideologically uncontaminated space” (p. 26). Juncture four is concerned with how critical scholars can contribute to benefit the transformation of intercultural communication. FINDINGS / CONTRIBUTION This article provides valuable insight into the influence scholarship from the critical perspective has in the intercultural communication field of study. Better understanding “the role that critical perspective plays in the field of intercultural communication and the crucial research questions, stances, and directions that arise from such a perspective” can be beneficial for better understanding the entire critical approach. This article helps us understand these concepts by outlining contributing elements that the critical perspective adds such as how “culture cannot be abstracted from structures of power” (p. 28). In addition, the fifth moment which is concerned MARTIN 1 with the critical perspective’s presence within dominant paradigms is a useful deconstructive concept. By providing a review of the critical perspective’s contribution to intercultural communication we see the value of using the elements discussed in our own research. COMMENTS I am interested in seeing how the concepts developed from the critical perspective could be used in relation to my own research. I enjoyed learning about the notions that historical context should be taken into account, how culture should be framed as something different from just being related to nation, that how culture is conceptualized influences the power dynamics involved, and how concepts of culture are politically and historically created. These are valuable insights that provide an excellent foundation for a continued study. In addition, these concepts are valuable when applied to deconstructing current intercultural communication processes at our educational institution. REFERENCES Halualani, R. T., Mendoza, S. L., & Drzewiecka, J. A. (2009). “Critical” junctures in intercultural communication studies: A review. The Review of Communication, 9(1), 1735. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. How can we as students engage in issues of power as we study this subject? Any examples you can think of?Sports Journal Article Review 2. Should culture be defined as something different from just being related to a nation? Why or Why not? WORD COUNT: 537 (to update word count, right click on number & select Update Field) MARTIN 2 Exploring ethnicity and sports participation in Burton-on-Trent and Stoke-on-Trent Dr. Jamie Cleland Centre for Sport and Exercise Research Staffordshire University April 2009 Contact: Dr. Jamie Cleland Centre for Sport and Exercise Research Staffordshire University Leek Road Stoke-on-Trent ST4 2DF [email protected] Tel: 01782 294341 2 Contents Section Page Executive Summary 4 Background 5 Methodology 9 Findings 11 Recommendations and Conclusions 17 References 19 3 Executive Summary The area of ethnicity and sports participation is of wide-ranging academic interest. However, whilst barriers such as time, cost, culture, stereotypes, access and a lack of opportunities are often identified and referred to, limited empirical research assesses the extent of these barriers and how they can be overcome by individuals and/or groups who participate in sport. Initiatives are in place to encourage more ethnic participation, but the overall effect of these on the black and ethnic minority community (BME) is under researched. To try and address some of these shortcomings, the aim of this project was to independently evaluate local sports participation within the BME community in Burton-on-Trent and Stoke-on-Trent. Based on the earlier literature review carried out on behalf of Sport Across Staffordshire and Stoke-on-Trent (SASSOT) by Dr Paul Ryan of Staffordshire University, it had a number of objectives to investigate within both areas: 1. Explore why some BME groups are not participating in sport or physical activity? 2. Identify why some BME groups are not undertaking voluntary work? 3. Analyse what local/national barriers they are facing? 4. Identify any examples of good practice which could be utilised in other communities? To put the importance of this area of investigation in context, the government has set a target that by 2020 70% of the whole population should take part in thirty minutes of physical activity at least five times a week. However, in some BME communities across the country less than one in five are participating just once a month in some form of physical activity (Sporting Equals 2007). This, therefore, supports the need for urgent attention to be paid to this area and for projects that are seen to be successful built upon. To address the aim and objectives, a small multi-method approach was adopted. Firstly, semi-structured interviews were carried out with individuals involved in sport in both local communities to get an idea of what action is needed to improve sport participation within the BME community. Those who were interviewed were split into 4 two groups: (1) those involved in the community, like community leaders, managers of community centres; and (2) those employed by the local authorities to engage with the local community and develop projects that improve sports participation and physical activity levels. Secondly, a short questionnaire was distributed to some subjects involved in projects in both Stoke-on-Trent and Burton-on-Trent to discover their views on the area of investigation. Most responses from those involved in either the local projects or the local community were similar with a majority stating a need for improvements in communication, marketing and facilities. Furthermore, those in this group also supported the literature regarding the barriers that do exist for the BME community, such as a lack of time, cost and cultural differences. On the other hand, those employed by the local authorities all stated new and potentially important projects to engage with the BME community and the impact of these are recommended for further research to evaluate their effectiveness.Sports Journal Article Review Of particular interest is the StreetGames project currently being run in Stoke-on-Trent and the Streets Ahead project currently being run in Burton-on-Trent. These two initiatives are much needed in both areas as active participation in sport and physical activity remains low. However, as proven by the Active People Surveys (1 and 2) it is not just the BME community that fails to meet the target of moderate activity for 30 minutes three times a week, but also other backgrounds score low in this particular area. Background In analysing the research carried out on the relationship between BME groups and sports participation it is clear that several key issues/barriers have been identified. In research presented by Carroll et al. (2002), for example, the perceived barriers to low participation for those in ethnic minorities were access to facilities, cost, access to childcare facilities, language, cultural factors, self-perception and actual racism or fear of racism. When asked about sports provision and their access to it, the location of the facility to their home and appropriate transport were cited as being crucial as to whether they participated. Similarly, Wray (2002) also put a lack of participation 5 down to cost, whilst the Leicester Racial Equality and Sport Project (2003) also highlighted cost and transportation as barriers to participation. One of the reasons behind concerns regarding using public transport to attend a facility was due to fears regarding racism (Carroll et al. 2002). This led to a reluctance in attending facilities and again is another contributing barrier to participation. According to Johnson (2000), Pakistani and Bangladeshi women reported a fear of going out alone due to the risk of actual or potential racist abuse. Not surprisingly, this can lead to low motivation rates and if it occurs can be difficult to overcome. This highlights the need for appropriate transport, provision in close proximity to their home, and a relaxing environment in which they can exercise freely without perceived restraint. The amount of free time available to some ethnic groups is also a barrier that has been identified. For example, the Sports Participation and Ethnicity in England 1999/2000 survey (Rowe and Champion 2000) found that over 40% of Indian, Pakistani, Black Caribbean and Black African women reported that that home and family responsibilities prevented them from participating in some form of physical exercise. According to Collins and Kay (2003), work, school, childcare and other domestic duties are often stated as preventing ethnic minority women from having sufficient leisure time to participate. Indeed, one of the conclusions from the Leicester Racial Equality and Sport Project (2003) argued that if women were to take part in physical exercise in greater numbers then childcare would need to be provided. Cultural factors and self-image are also factors which lead members of the BME community not to participate in some form of physical exercise. Carroll et al. (2002), in their research, for example, found that for South Asian women body shape and a lack of a ‘sporty type’ image remained a concern. Culturally, Wray (2002) found that whilst some Muslim women did have an image of westernised ideals of image (such as femininity and attractiveness) others did not see this type of image as important to them. Furthermore, there are also found to be concerns regarding appropriate dress and the mixing of sessions of people from different backgrounds. Sports Journal Article Review Some literature indicates the need for women only sessions and the importance to make a particular facility or location a female only one before and after the activity. In research 6 conducted by Wray (2002), self-image played a crucial role as some respondents had stopped attending due to increased internal negative feelings of being seen by other women when getting changed and by men when exercising or attending a particular location. Indeed, a relaxed dress code, a lack of privacy and the need for single sex sessions have all been highlighted elsewhere. However, whilst most of the literature on this is applied to Muslim women, it is important to state that this barrier is not just confined to one particular group and that every woman and man whether they are Muslim or Bangladeshi interprets their religious requirements differently. In research carried out by Sport England (Rowe and Champion 2000) on ethnic minority sports participation, 31% of Indian women participated compared to only 19% Bangladeshi women (the national average was 39%). Perhaps not surprisingly, there are differences in the level of participation between men and women of an ethnic background. For example, at a national level the gap is 15% but for Bangladeshi’s it is 27%, Black Africans it is 26% and for Pakistanis it is 20%. On a positive note, this Sport England research also indicated a large amount of interest in sports participation from ethnic groups. For example, 31% of Black African women stated that they would like opportunities to swim whilst 22% of Indian women, 21% of Bangladeshi women and 16% of Pakistani women also stated the same interest. In other forms of exercise, such as keep fit and aerobic activities, again interest was prevalent with 26% of Black African women and 19% of Indian women stating positive responses. However, whilst these figures seem positive, as outlined above, the actual take-up of sports participation amongst some black and ethnic groups remains low (Rowe and Champion 2000; Carroll et al. 2002; Carrington and McDonald 2008). Indeed, British born South Asians are less likely to be involved in some form of physical activity than those who were born outside the United Kingdom. Similarly, the Sports Participation and Ethnicity in England 1999/2000 survey highlighted that even an activity like walking two miles or more is low for ethnic minority groups, especially Pakistani, Indian and Bangladeshi women (Rowe and Champion 2000). 7 In terms of trying to increase participation rates amongst the BME community, there is no shortage of recommendations (Carroll et al. 2002; Duval et al. 2004; Sporting Equals 2007). For example, in summarising their 2002 research, Carroll et al. recommended using instructors from the ethnic group participating, providing free sessions held at the local community centre, access to a crèche and extensive local promotion to ensure that the local community were kept informed of physical activities. Duval et al. (2004) and Sporting Equals (2007) also present similar recommendations on how the BME community can be incorporated better into physical activity initiatives. In analysing research on Burton-on-Trent and Stoke-on-Trent in more detail, Sport England’s Active People 2 survey (2008) shows that, in East Staffordshire, the amount of people taking part in thirty minutes of moderately intense sport and active participation at least three days a week had slightly risen from 22.8% in 2005/06 to 23.0% in 2007/08. However, in Stoke-on-Trent, in 2005/06 the figure was 15.8% but had dropped to 14.4% in 2007/08. Again this highlights a wider participation agenda than to just the BME community.Sports Journal Article Review Finally, to provide an overview of the demographics of both Stoke-on-Trent and Burton-on-Trent, the 2001 Census data outlined that for East Staffordshire the total population was 103,770, with 92% ‘White British’, nearly 4% ‘Pakistani’ and less than 1% ‘Indian’, ‘Bangladeshi’ and ‘Chinese’. In assessing more specific wards within Burton-on-Trent, in Anglesey, the total number of residents was 5,835, with ‘Whites’ comprising of 72%, and ‘Asian or Asian British’ comprising of 24%. In Shobnall, out of a total of 6,132 residents, 75% were ‘White’ with nearly 22% ‘Asian or Asian British’. Finally, in Stoke-on-Trent, out of a total number of 240,636 residents, 95% were ‘White’ with 3.5% ‘Asian or Asian British’. This was compared to the ethnic minority community across Britain totalling 4.6 million (7.9% of the population) in the 2001 Census. 8 Method The main method of data collection for this project was through semi-structured interviews due to the diversity of the individuals chosen to assist in providing this project with a valuable insight into the area. However, towards the end of the project, a brief questionnaire was designed to try and get the perspective of people actually involved in some of the projects in both Burton-on-Trent and Stoke-on-Trent to try and gather as wide a range of data as possible. One of the advantages of adopting a semi-structured interview approach is that a subject is more likely to express their views more openly than through a structured interview or through the completion of a questionnaire. Moreover, due to the area of investigation it was decided not to use a dictaphone when carrying out the interviews as it was felt that the individuals concerned would express their views more freely. Instead, extensive note taking was used as it allows the interviewee to express themselves without any visible constraints and can assist in achieving a greater depth of data (Patton 2002; Rubin and Rubin 2005; Richards 2005). The aim of the interviews was to carry them out face-to-face, with some authors viewing this as advantageous as it allows the researcher and the interviewee to become more closely involved than would occur by using other methods, such as questionnaires (Burns 2000; Patton 2002). However, face-to-face interviewing can also be problematic if the interviewer’s presence is not seen as objective, as this could result in an interviewee being biased when perceiving and answering a particular question. If an objective position is achieved during the interview, then it is likely that the interviewee will give the level of response that is desirable in answering the research question(s) (Babbie and Mouton 2001). Sports Journal Article Review Therefore, when the interview questions were initially prepared for each subject and then carried out, leading questions such as ‘don’t you think’ were avoided to maintain an objective position. My position as an independent researcher on this project was also stated in the initial contact with the participants and again before the interview began. 9 The majority of subjects interviewed were selected due to their relevance to this particular project and because of the differing nature of their roles they were split into two groups. The first group were those involved in the community, like community leaders, managers of community centres and the second group were those employed by the local authorities to engage with the local community and develop projects that improve sports participation and physical activity levels. The questions that were asked to each individual centred on the following themes that arose from the literature and relate back to the aim and objectives of this study: 1. Explore why some BME groups are not participating in sport or physical activity? 2. Identify why some BME groups are not undertaking voluntary work? 3. Analyse what local/national barriers they are facing? 4. Identify any examples of good practice which could be utilised in other communities? The importance of making the interviewee feel both relaxed and significant to the research study was covered in the introduction and formalities of the interview process (as suggested in Gratton and Jones 2004). Time was spent at the beginning of the interview process elaborating on the aims and origins of the project with the first few questions generally introductory in nature. Whilst the questions asked were nonintrusive, it was stressed that their name would not be used in the project to maintain their confidentiality and to encourage them to speak openly about the project aim and objectives. Once it became apparent that written contact was not always effective, telephone contact became a suitable and alternative approach. This was primarily used to try and arrange a face-to-face interview but if this was not possible then the interview was conducted over the telephone. For instance, the club secretary of Grange Park Rangers (a Sunday league football team in Cobridge, Stoke-on-Trent) and a contact at the Afghan society in Burton-on-Trent both had to be interviewed over the telephone due to work commitments, which was agreed upon to maintain the collection of key data. 10 The arguments put forward by some so … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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