Strayer Emerging Wireless Technology in Healthcare Industry Case Discussion

Strayer Emerging Wireless Technology in Healthcare Industry Case Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Strayer Emerging Wireless Technology in Healthcare Industry Case Discussion The medical industry is a good example of an industry that must balance the security issues associated with wireless technologies with the business value added from wireless technologies. Strayer Emerging Wireless Technology in Healthcare Industry Case Discussion Read the article about emerging wireless medical technologies titled, “ How 5G (and concomitant technologies) will revolutionize healthcare ” Read the Information Week article about how wireless and mobile devices will change the healthcare practices titled “ Strategy: How Mobility, Apps and BYOD Will Transform Healthcare ”. Write a 4–5-page paper in which you do the following: Summarize the current and emerging wireless medical technologies. Describe the wireless components needed for added business value in the healthcare environment. Assess the additional staffing and support requirements needed to support the wireless technologies. Analyze the potential technical and regulatory problems with implementing a wireless network in a healthcare organization and describe the mitigation methods to overcome these potential problems in the healthcare industry. Use at least three quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar websites do not qualify as quality resources. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: Be typed, double-spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with 1-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are as follows: Compare and contrast wireless systems and their recent advances. Evaluate the application of wireless LANs, MANs, and PANs. Strayer Emerging Wireless Technology in Healthcare Industry Case Discussion how_5g__and_concomitant_technologies__will_revolutionize_healthcare.pdf strategy_how_mobility_apps_and_byod_will_transform_healthcare_750049.pdf 1 How 5G (and concomitant technologies) will revolutionize healthcare Siddique Latif1,2 , Junaid Qadir1 , Shahzad Farooq3 , and Muhammad Ali Imran4 1 arXiv:1708.08746v1 [cs.CY] 17 Aug 2017 2 Information Technology University (ITU), Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan 3 Nokia Networks, Helsinki, Finland 4 School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom Abstract—In this paper, we build the case that 5G and concomitant emerging technologies (such as IoT, big data, artificial intelligence, and machine learning) will transform global healthcare systems in the near future. Our optimism around 5G-enabled healthcare stems from a confluence of significant technical pushes that are already at play: apart from the availability of highthroughput low-latency wireless connectivity, other significant factors include the democratization of computing through cloud computing; the democratization of AI and cognitive computing (e.g., IBM Watson); and the commoditization of data through crowdsourcing and digital exhaust. These technologies together can finally crack a dysfunctional healthcare system that has largely been impervious to technological innovations. We highlight the persistent deficiencies of the current healthcare system, and then demonstrate how the 5G-enabled healthcare revolution can fix these deficiencies. We also highlight open technical research challenges, and potential pitfalls, that may hinder the development of such a 5G-enabled health revolution. Despite the core role of human health in human development and progress, today’s healthcare system is largely dysfunctional and in the need of a major overhaul. Broadly speaking, the ills of the healthcare system can be categorized into four major deficiencies (illustrated in Figure 1). Index Terms—Healthcare, 5G, Internet of Things, big data analytics, artificial intelligence and machine learning I. I NTRODUCTION Good health has a constructive effect on all aspects of human and social well-being including personal happiness, workforce productivity, and economic growth. Recognizing the importance of healthcare, facilitating affordable universal access to healthcare is already enshrined as an important goal of the United Nations’ new Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) that defines the UN’s development agenda for the next 15 years. In the words of the Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen, “Health is a critically significant constituent of human capabilities which we have reason to value”. It has been shown in literature that investment in healthcare pays huge dividends. In the Economists’ Declaration, originally launched in 2015 with 267 high-profile economist signatories, world-leading economists called on global policymakers to plead for a propoor pathway to universal health coverage as an essential pillar of sustainable development1 . A case was made that healthcare investments make perfect economic sense since according to the Global Health 2035 report by the Lancet Commission on Investing in Health, every dollar invested in the healthcare of poor countries has a nine-fold or higher return. 1 http://universalhealthcoverageday.org/economists-declaration/ Fig. 1: The four major deficiencies of conventional healthcare systems Firstly, the current healthcare system is not convenient for patients since the current healthcare system is not patientcentric. Strayer Emerging Wireless Technology in Healthcare Industry Case Discussion As an example, the patient has to go, or be taken, to a doctor’s office or a hospital for any non-trivial illness which is inconvenient for the patient (who would likely prefer to rest) and also for the patient’s caregivers (e.g., the patient’s guardian or family member who must take the patient to the clinic). The patients also need to slot in their health related appointments in their busy schedule and this sometimes lead to carelessness in giving due attention to regular and required health-checks with doctors. Secondly, the current healthcare system is not personalized according to the individual patient. Doctors prescribe medications based on population averages rather than the individual characteristics. As today, it is very difficult and costly to adopt tailored treatments based on individuals’ medical history and genetic profile. Thirdly, the current healthcare system is not equitably accessible. Similar kinds of healthcare facilities are not equally accessible to patients or utilized by only a certain groups of people, based on their ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and 2 geographic residence, etc. Similarly, lack or limited access to basic healthcare services are putting patients (especially disabled people) at much higher risk and causing adverse health outcomes. Fourthly, the current healthcare system is not holistic/datadriven. The Institute of Medicine, a division of the National Academy of Sciences, representing our most prestigious scientists and physicians, published the report To Err Is Human, which proclaimed that “at least 44,000 people, and perhaps as many as 98,000 people, die in hospitals each year as a result of medical errors that could have been prevented, but which arose because “faulty systems, processes, and condition” led people either to make mistakes or to fail to prevent them. Beyond the human toll, these errors cost between $17 billion and $29 billion. Although modern medicine is ripe with numerous success stories (such as the eradication of diseases as smallpox, invention of antibiotics and anesthesia, development of modern surgery and therapy techniques), the overall healthcare industry has been largely impervious to a technological revolution. This has been the case due to many reasons such as its highly regulated and policy-driven nature as well as the unique nature of its value chain unlike other markets, in which someone makes choices (e.g., a doctor), someone else is a consumer and user (e.g., patient), and someone else altogether pays (e.g., the insurer or the government via taxpayer). The Institute of Medicine (IoM), a division of the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS), summarized the ills of the US healthcare system as follows: “If banking were like health care, automated teller machine (ATM) transactions would take not seconds but perhaps days or longer as a result of unavailable or misplaced records. If home building were like health care, carpenters, electricians, and plumbers each would work with different blueprints, with very little coordination. If shopping were like health care, product prices would not be posted, and the price charged would vary widely within the same store, depending on the source of payment. If automobile manufacturing were like health care, warranties for cars that require manufacturers to pay for defects would not exist. As a result, few factories would seek to monitor and improve production line performance and product quality. If airline travel were like health care, each pilot would be free to design his or her own preflight safety check, or not to perform one at all” [1]. While the point of the charge sheet above is certainly not that healthcare should function precisely in the way that other industries do, indeed each industry is different from others. Strayer Emerging Wireless Technology in Healthcare Industry Case Discussion However, the point is that the banking, construction, retailing, automobile manufacturing, flight safety, public utilities, and personal services have developed certain best practices in terms of quality assurance, accountability, and transparency that healthcare industry should also incorporate. More than anything else, the healthcare industry needs to be reoriented so that the patient becomes the core concern of the system. In such a patient-centric healthcare, patient will be empowered with information and the preferences and convenience of patients will automatically be incorporated. Furthermore, payment incentives should be redesigned so that outcomes and values are rewarded and not a volume of procedures. Finally, with a transparent system, errors will be promptly identified and corrected and a data-driven approach will become routine allowing for continuous improvement through reflections on past and evidence based healthcare decisions. In this paper, we show how 5G and various other technologies such as IoT, big data analytics, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) will restructure healthcare system. We believe that 5G network will address not only personal communications but also aims to create a fully digital society. In which sensors can be embedded in tissue (pacemaker), ingestible (smart pills), epidermal (smart skin or digital tattoo), wearable (clothing or jewelry), and external (traditional blood pressure monitors and smart watches). ML algorithms will estimate appropriate micro-dosages of insulin to be delivered by the pump, as well as to detect anomalies that might be forwarded to human experts who can ensure that no medical problem has occurred. Telemedicine or e-Health will enable resource pooling by remote consultation and remote surgery. Surgeons will have haptic feedback (robot touches) from the patient tissues. Similarly, patients will able to measure their own vitals at a fraction of cost and with great convenience. People in rural and low-income zones will have equitable health at reduced cost. In this way, overall healthcare will be transformed. In addition, this paper also discusses various destructive innovation in healthcare and technology challenges and pitfall that will come up with 5G. The paper is organized as follows. In Section II, we discuss the various challenges posed by the current healthcare system. In Section III, we highlight how technology can fix the existing lacks of the healthcare system and disruptive innovations are also presented. In section IV opportunities of 5G for healthcare are discussed in details, followed by technology challenges and pitfall for healthcare in section V. Finally, we conclude this paper in Section VI. II. C HALLENGES P OSED B Y T HE C URRENT H EALTHCARE S YSTEM The current healthcare system is stressed by a number of challenges including an aging population; the rising disease burden of lifestyle-related chronic diseases (such as diabetes, high blood pressure, etc.); the absence of patient-centered scalable clinical operating models; the lack of healthcare facilities and human resources (or limited access thereto); and the high costs associated with the provision of high-quality care [2]. Some of these and other major global healthcare challenges are discussed in more detail next. A. Challenges with EHRs Electronic Health Record (EHR) is a repository containing patients’ digital data that is stored and exchangeable securely to multiple authorized users. It stores retrospective, prospective, and concurrent health information with the purpose to support efficient, continuing, and quality service in integrated 3 health [3]. In contrast to the virtues and success of EHRs, there are various challenges and limitations. Strayer Emerging Wireless Technology in Healthcare Industry Case Discussion The lack of interoperability is a major problem because hospitals and physicians are mostly not connected. This causes the patients’ health information to be constrained within hospitals and laboratories. B. Lack of Universal Access Universal access to healthcare entails that everyone can have equitable access to health services without any discrimination especially on the capacity to pay [4]. Coverage of healthcare services is limited when a country lacks in trained health care professionals, services, and equipment; available resources are not located in proximity; and individuals are unable to afford services due to their high cost [5]. Universal healthcare services is particularly challenging for developing and underdeveloped countries, where health resources and practitioners are in short supply, particularly, in rural areas [6]. Universal access can be achieved by progressively eliminating the abovementioned challenges that prevent people from having fair and comprehensive health facilities determined at the national or international level. C. The Long-Term Chronic Care Burden Chronic diseases are increasing globally and have become the most dominant and serious threat. By 2020, 157 million people in the United States are estimated to have at least one chronic illness and the cost will increase to 80% of total healthcare expenditures (75% in 2000) [7]. The current global healthcare system is particularly troubling for people with chronic illness [8]. People suffering from chronic diseases rely more heavily on the healthcare system: they utilize the system more often, consume extra resources, visit multiple doctors, and have long-term relationships with them. Therefore, when the healthcare system fails, patients with chronic disease are more affected. D. Challenges for Aging Populations The world’s population is rapidly growing older, leading us to a higher number of elderly people in our society. The number of people aged 65 or older is projected to increase from 8% (524 million) of world’s population in 2010 to 16% (1.5 billion) in 2050 [9]. The increasing share of the elderly population with increased life expectancy is changing the cause of death from infectious diseases to chronic noncommunicable illnesses. These demographic shifts are posing enormous challenges to healthcare systems. In near future, the current healthcare systems will fail to provide longterm care to older people with multiple chronic illnesses. Changes are required to make strategies for older adults to live independently by providing high-quality care. E. Resources Constraints Despite the great success in creating impressive outlook of healthcare system, the overall healthcare services are still insufficient. Patients have to travel from distant place to visit their doctors. Traveling barriers cause rescheduling or missing of appointments, and delay in medications. There are 57 countries with a critical shortage of healthcare workers, for instance, Africa has 2.3 health workers per 1000 population as compared to Americas, which have 24.8 health workers per 1000 population [10]. Similarly, in Pakistan, there is one doctor for 1038 inhabitants [6]. The problem is now becoming more acute and the world will have an anticipated shortage of 12.9 million health-care workers by 2035 [11]. Therefore, we need some serious developments in healthcare to increase the productivity of health professionals by using telemedicine and e-Heath-like services. F. Problems with Healthcare Information Systems The advancements in information communications technology have potentials to bring a significant transformation in the healthcare system by connecting medical devices, automating financial transactions and preventing errors to enhance consumer confidence in the health system. But the healthcare systems are very complex, as they include communication and processing of heterogeneous health information, optimal allocation of available resources and their administrative management simultaneously. Existing wireless technologies (3G, 4G, and WiMAX) exploit macro-cells to provide wider range suitable for lower data rates. Strayer Emerging Wireless Technology in Healthcare Industry Case Discussion These technologies are mainly suitable for smart health monitoring devices, social interactions, and wellness monitoring applications [12]. For healthcare systems, we require a heterogeneous wireless technology with multiple frequencies ranges that can provide guaranteed high data rate and very low latency for medical services like remote surgery. G. Lack of Data Driven Culture In current healthcare paradigm, patients are assessed on population averages and data-poor practices, and it is practically not possible to conduct standard parallel group randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Moreover, clinical evidence generated by non-standard RCTs has poor generalizability, therefore have limited applicability to patients, and even also restricted to compare the effectiveness of drugs and medical devices [13]. In such data-poor system, the medication doses are often overor underestimated—that can result in adverse drug reactions. This represents a crucial missed opportunity to embrace the development of an intelligent and evidence-based healthcare system that generate and apply the best evidence-based care to each patient; discover the natural outgrowth of patient care; and also ensure innovation, safety, quality, and add values to the healthcare system. H. Healthcare Disparities Currently, healthcare systems are mostly income-based instead of need-based. People who need healthcare services crucially are getting less access than the people who need it least. For example, on average in United State rich are the 4 biggest buyers of healthcare services despite being healthier than the poor [14]. In the other study, it is found that people in the lower incomes quartile have poorer health [15]. This dramatic shift in healthcare is creating disparities in health outcomes across income groups. III. H OW TECHNOLOGIES CAN FIX THE CURRENT HEALTHCARE SYSTEM In this section, we will discuss how technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT), big data for healthcare, (wireless connectivitiy), and other disruptive health innovations can fix the current broken healthcare system. A. Various health advances with IoT The Internet of Things (IoT) is an abstraction of infinite, smart, physical, and virtual objects that have unique identities connected to create an ultimate cyber-physical pervasive framework. These devices capture, monitor and transmit data to public or private cloud to facilitate a new level of convenient and efficient automation. We are witnessing the rise of cellular Internet of Things (IoT) and it is expected that there will be 20 billions of devices or things connected to the Internet by 2020 [16]. IoT trend is a next-generation technology that can change the whole business spectrum with a variety of applications such as smart cities, industrial control, retails, waste management, emergency services, security, logistics. Most importantly, IoT is considered as an enchanting technology that can revolutionize the current healthcare system with a variety of cutting-edge and highly individualized solutions such as remote health monitoring, remote diagnostics, teleauscultation, chronic diseases management, independent care for elderly and much more [17]. Patients compliance with medication and treatment by healthcare providers is another prominent potential application of IoT. In addition, IoT can also be used to authenticate medicine, monitor drugs supplies and efficient scheduling of available resources to ensure their best use for more patients. In medical IoT, various medical sensors, devices, smart phones, imaging devices, PDAs and EHRs act as a core part of the system. These devices monitor important health information, like physiological vital signs, changes in mood and behaviors, blood glucose, that can be effectively utilized by healthcare providers to improve the quality of care and health outcomes. Furthermore, IoT-based solutions have potentials to reduce the required time for remote health provision, increase the quality of care by reducing costs with enriched user’s experience. B. Big Data for Healthcare In the last few years, we are increasingly living in a digital world where devices like smart phones, EHRs, biomedical and wearable sensors produce a large volume of health data. Such data can be referred to as “big data” due to its highvelocity and wide variety holds a lot of promise for evidencebased human developmental efforts [18]. The digitization of human being and the rise of big health data which allows the remote and continuous monitoring of each heartbeat, momentto-moment blood pressure, oxygen concentration in blood, body temperature, glucose, human activities. and emotions. Human health data and behavior information can also be used for analytics to gain deep insights into … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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