NURS 409 Health Policy: Economics, & Systems Outline and Analysis

NURS 409 Health Policy: Economics, & Systems Outline and Analysis NURS 409 Health Policy: Economics, & Systems Outline and Analysis Using the questions within the instructions, create an outline based on your topic linking to the course concepts. References should be on a ‘new’ page in APA format and should include scientific literature (maybe even nursing journals) and/or your text books. The Writer’s Reference mentioned below can be found under the Course Content (I also have this doc attached for help or guide). I’ve also linked a copy of just the pages needed for work on outlines below. Within these pages are examples of what I expect an outline to look like. Use this as your ‘good’ sample of work. NURS 409 Health Policy: Economics, & Systems Outline and Analysis ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS outline___paper_assignments.pdf a_writer_s_reference__7 NURS 409 Health Policy, Economics, & Systems Outline and Analysis Paper Assignments The purpose of the outline is to help plan out your analysis paper. By writing the paper, you will apply the concepts of systems and policy to a specific quality improvement or safety issue. The concepts that need to be addressed within your outline and thus your paper, are posed as questions. Here are the components of your outline. The rubric with specifics can be found under the Grading Rubrics left-hand link. ? Purpose statement: Purpose statement, which will be included in your introduction once you write that. (ex: This paper will analyze/examine/compare and contrast…, etc. This can incorporate a PICOT statement/ question.) [See Writer’s Reference, C2—a, APA1a. and To Make Your Case, Start with a PICOT Question under Helping Hands folder in Course Content.] ? Outline: Is organized into standard outline structure; clear distinction between points & support, and not too narrow or too broad. Simple is ok for now. [See Writer’s Reference, C1—d.] ? References: References is centered, sources are listed at left margin in alphabetical order by author in APA format which includes double-spacing and hanging indent. [For more info, see Writer’s Reference APA—4b or p.459 and the APA Manual Sections 6.27— 6.32.] Review files within Course Content/ Helping Hands- Supplemental Material/ Writing Help folder to help with formatting. ? Grammar and Language: Agreement (subject—verb, singular/plural), verb tenses, subject and verb, no fragments, no run-ons, sentences/ neither too short nor too long) ? Mechanics and Format: See details in rubric. To begin, choose a current health issue (identify a problem to be fixed) that you feel could be improved or a safety concern within your institution/ unit. If you are not currently working, chose a larger issue to defend. Some examples include: ? ? ? ? ? ? Medicare’s lack of coverage for hearing aids, The government not being able to negotiate drug prices for Medicare beneficiaries. Lack of support for napping during a night shift, Single-payer system for U.S., Board of Nursing regulations differentiating clinical hours between BSN and ADN prepared nurses, or Support for women’s health care services through Planned Parenthood. The paper should address the following topics and questions: 1. Summarize the current scenario where you observe a need for improvement or is a safety issue. What needs fixing? Who are the principal people involved? How are the principal people affected? What is the current policy (law, regulation, judicial ruling) regarding this issue? Page 1 of 3 2.21.2018 NURS 409 Health Policy, Economics, & Systems 2. Propose alternative health care policy at the unit, organizational, local, state, federal, or international level that would help change the issue. Defend this change with current research and literature. 3. Based on the system where the policy is implemented, describe the process you would go through to implement this change in policy. Describing the organizational structure; is it well suited to change? How does the change fit within the institution’s / system’s mission, vision & values, and/or philosophy? What lines of accountability (chain of command) need to be included? NURS 409 Health Policy: Economics, & Systems Outline and Analysis Can Transforming Care at the Bedside (TCAB) model be used? What cost considerations would there be to implement the change? Address how long the change would potentially take. Ask questions for clarification if needed. The paper should be between 5-8 pages including the title page and references. For more information and general writing guidance, keep reading below. General Writing Guidelines and Hints ? Every paper must have a title page using guidelines from APA. (See page 41 of APA manual for a sample.) No abstract is needed. ? Every paper must follow APA formatting and language rules. ? When referring to people, the pronoun is who not that. Using ‘that’ in effect dehumanizes those whom we are referring to whether patients, co-workers, or others. Please use the appropriate pronoun. ? Contractions should not be used in a formal paper unless within a direct quote. ? Common mistakes including commas should be avoided. Commas add clarity and prevent misunderstanding. Please review grammar rules. ? Misused words such as amount vs. number, affect vs effect, and typos can be ‘caught’ by reading your paper aloud or asking another to read it. ? Every paper should have a paragraph of introduction with a statement of purpose. After the bullet points, further specifics on writing a purpose statement follow. ? Each paragraph should have a topic sentence which tells the reader what the paragraph will be about. Page 2 of 3 2.21.2018 NURS 409 Health Policy, Economics, & Systems ? There should be a transition sentence between paragraphs or topics. Generally, paragraphs should not be longer than 5–6 sentences. While there is some flexibility, a page-long paragraph is too long. ? A concluding or summarizing paragraph should be included circling back to your purpose statement. Writing a Purpose Statement For those who have had N404, if you want to write a PICO statement to help you formulate your ideas that is a great start to creating your purpose statement. For those who need a refresher or starter, an article is posted under Helping Hands Supplemental Materials folder entitled: To Make Your Case, Start with a PICOT Question For example. Population: Nurses working night shifts Intervention: To allow sleeping on night shift with certain stipulations. Comparison: Units that allow staff to sleep with controlled rules vs. punitive environments for resting during shift. Outcomes: Nurses’ job satisfaction improves. Better patient outcomes. Time: (Use as needed) My potential purpose statement might be: Patient outcomes can be improved along with nurses’ job satisfaction with the implementation of allowing nurses to nap during their night shifts. Or: Although resisted by management, nurses napping during night shifts can lead to both improved patient outcomes and nurse job satisfaction. Finally, if you have any questions, please ask. Clarification and guidance will be provided. I have made available a sample analysis paper. I do not want you to limit your writing or creativity after viewing it. Copying any portion, idea, or detail of it will be considered plagiarism and treated thusly per CoN Policy found within the syllabus. Page 3 of 3 2.21.2018 outlining • formal outline C1-d FORMAL OUTLINE Thesis: Although companies often have legitimate concerns that lead them to monitor employees’ Internet usage—from expensive security breaches to reduced productivity—the benefits of electronic surveillance are outweighed by its costs to employees’ privacy and autonomy. I. Although employers have always monitored employees, electronic surveillance is more efficient. A. Employers can gather data in large quantities. B. Electronic surveillance can be continuous. C. Electronic surveillance can be conducted secretly, with keystroke logging programs. II. Some experts argue that employers have legitimate reasons to monitor employees’ Internet usage. NURS 409 Health Policy: Economics, & Systems Outline and Analysis A. Unmonitored employees could accidentally breach security. B. Companies are legally accountable for the online actions of employees. III. Despite valid concerns, employers should value employee morale and autonomy and avoid creating an atmosphere of distrust. A. Setting the boundaries for employee autonomy is difficult in the wired workplace. 1. Using the Internet is the most popular way of wasting time at work. 2. Employers can’t tell easily if employees are working or surfing the Web. B. Surveillance can create resentment among employees. 1. Web surfing can relieve stress, and restricting it can generate tension between managers and workers. 2. Enforcing Internet usage can seem arbitrary. IV. Surveillance may not increase employee productivity, and trust may benefit productivity. A. A company shouldn’t care how many hours salaried employees work as long as they get the job done. B. Casual Internet use can actually benefit companies. 1. The Internet may spark business ideas. 2. The Internet may suggest ideas about how to operate more efficiently. V. Employees’ rights to privacy are not well defined by the law. A. Few federal guidelines on electronic surveillance exist. B. Employers and employees are negotiating the boundaries without legal guidance. C. As technological capabilities increase, the need to define boundaries will also increase. 13 14 C2 Drafting Guidelines for constructing an outline 1. Put the thesis at the top. 2. Make items at the same level parallel grammatically (see S1). 3. Use sentences unless phrases are clear. 4. Use the conventional system of numbers, letters, and indents: I. A. B. 1. 2. a. b. II. A. B. 1. 2. a. b. 5. Always include at least two items at each level. 6. Limit the number of major sections in the outline; if the list of roman numerals (at the ?rst level) gets too long, try clustering the items into fewer major categories with more subcategories. C2 Drafting Generally, the introduction to a piece of writing announces the main point; the body develops it, usually in several paragraphs; the conclusion drives it home. You can begin drafting, however, at any point. If you ?nd it dif?cult to introduce a paper that you have not yet written, try drafting the body ?rst and saving the introduction for later. C2-a For most types of writing, draft an introduction that includes a thesis. Drafting an introduction Your introduction will usually be a paragraph of 50 to 150 words (in a longer paper, it may be more than one paragraph). Perhaps the most common strategy is to open the paragraph with a few sentences that THE WRITING CENTER hackerhandbooks.com/writersref > Resources for writers and tutors > Tips from writing tutors: Writing introductions and conclusions outline • introduction • thesis • hook C2-a engage the reader and establish your purpose for writing and then state your main point. The statement of your main point is called the thesis. (See also C1-c.) In the following introductions, the thesis is highlighted. Credit card companies love to extend credit to college students, especially those just out of high school. Ads for credit cards line campus bulletin boards, ?ash across commercial Web sites for students, and get stuffed into shopping bags at college bookstores. Why do the companies market their product so vigorously to a population that lacks a substantial credit history and often has no steady source of income? The answer is that signi?cant pro?ts can be earned through high interest rates and assorted penalties and fees. By granting college students liberal lending arrangements, credit card companies often hook them on a cycle of spending that can ultimately lead to ?nancial ruin. — Matt Watson, student As the United States industrialized in the nineteenth century, using immigrant labor, social concerns took a backseat to the task of building a prosperous nation. NURS 409 Health Policy: Economics, & Systems Outline and Analysis The government did not regulate industries and did not provide an effective safety net for the poor or for those who became sick or injured on the job. Immigrants and the poor did have a few advocates, however. Settlement houses such as Hull-House in Chicago provided information, services, and a place for reform-minded individuals to gather and work to improve the conditions of the urban poor. Alice Hamilton was one of these reformers. Hamilton’s efforts helped to improve the lives of immigrants and drew attention and respect to the problems and people that until then had been ignored. — Laurie McDonough, student Ideally, the introductory sentences leading to the thesis should hook the reader, perhaps with one of the following: • a startling statistic or an unusual fact • a vivid example • a description or an image • a paradoxical statement • a quotation or a bit of dialogue • a question • an analogy • an anecdote Whether you are writing for a scholarly audience, a professional audience, or a general audience, you cannot assume your readers’ interest in the topic. The hook should spark curiosity and offer readers a reason to continue. PRACTICE hackerhandbooks.com/writersref > Composing and revising > C2–2 to C2–4 15 16 C2-a Drafting Although the thesis frequently appears at the end of the introduction, it can also appear at the beginning. Much work-related writing, for example, requires a straightforward approach and commonly begins with the thesis. Flextime scheduling, which has proved effective at the Library of Congress, should be introduced on a trial basis at the main branch of the Montgomery County Public Library. By offering ?exible work hours, the library can boost employee morale, cut down on absenteeism, and expand its hours of operation. — David Warren, student For some types of writing, it may be dif?cult or impossible to express the central idea in a thesis statement; or it may be unwise or unnecessary to include a thesis statement in the essay. A personal narrative, for example, may have a focus that is too subtle to be distilled in a single statement. Strictly informative writing, like that found in many business memos, may be dif?cult to summarize in a thesis. In such instances, do not try to force the central idea into a thesis sentence. Instead, think in terms of an overriding purpose, which may or may not be stated directly. Making the most of your handbook The thesis statement is central to many types of writing. Writing about texts: A1 Constructing reasonable arguments: A2 Writing research papers: MLA-1, APA-1, CMS-1 Academic English If you come from a culture that prefers an indirect approach in writing, you may feel that asserting a thesis early in an essay sounds unre?ned or even rude. In the United States, however, readers appreciate a direct approach; when you state your point as directly as possible, you show that you understand your topic and value your readers’ time. Writing effective thesis statements An effective thesis statement is a central idea that requires supporting evidence; its scope is appropriate for the required length of the essay; and it is sharply focused. It should answer a question you have posed, resolve a problem you have identi?ed, or take a position in a debate. NURS 409 Health Policy: Economics, & Systems Outline and Analysis When constructing a thesis statement, ask yourself whether you can successfully develop it with the sources available to you and for the purposes you’ve identi?ed. Also ask if you can explain why readers should be interested in reading an essay that explores this thesis. A thesis must require proof or further development through facts and details; it cannot itself be a fact or a description. introduction • thesis • main idea DRAFT THESIS C2-a The ?rst polygraph was developed by Dr. John A. Larson in 1921. PROBLEM The thesis is too factual. A reader could not disagree with it or debate it; no further development of this idea is required. STRATEGY Enter a debate by posing a question about your topic that has more than one possible answer. For example: Should the polygraph be used by private employers? Your thesis should be your answer to the question. REVISED THESIS Because the polygraph has not been proved reliable, even under controlled conditions, its use by employers should be banned. A thesis should be an answer to a question, not a question itself. DRAFT THESIS Would John F. Kennedy have continued to escalate the war in Vietnam if he had lived? PROBLEM The thesis is a question, not an answer to a question. STRATEGY Take a position on your topic by answering the question you have posed. Your thesis should be your answer to the question. REVISED THESIS Although John F. Kennedy sent the ?rst American troops to Vietnam before he died, an analysis of his foreign policy suggests that he would not have escalated the war had he lived. A thesis should be of suf?cient scope for your assignment; it should not be too broad. DRAFT THESIS Mapping the human genome has many implications for health and science. PROBLEM The thesis is too broad. Even in a very long research paper, you would not be able to discuss all the implications of mapping the human genome. STRATEGY Consider subtopics of your original topic. Once you have chosen a subtopic, take a position in an ongoing debate and pose a question that has more than one answer. For example: Should people be tested for genetic diseases? Your thesis should be your answer to the question. REVISED THESIS Although scientists can now detect genetic predisposition for speci?c diseases, policymakers should establish guidelines about whom to test and under what circumstances. 17 18 C2-b Drafting A thesis also should not be too narrow. DRAFT THESIS A person who carries a genetic mutation linked to a particular disease might or might not develop that disease. PROBLEM The thesis is too narrow. It does not suggest any argument or debate about the topic. NURS 409 Health Policy: Economics, & Systems Outline and Analysis STRATEGY Identify challenging questions that readers might have about your topic. Then pose a question that has more than one answer. For example: Do the risks of genetic testing outweigh its usefulness? Your thesis should be your answer to this question. REVISED THESIS Though positive results in a genetic test do not guarantee that the disease will develop, such results can cause psychological trauma; genetic testing should therefore be avoided in most cases. A thesis should be sharply focused, not too vague. Avoid fuzzy, hard-to-de?ne words such as interesting, good, or disgusting. DRAFT THESIS The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is an interesting structure. PROBLEM This thesis is too fuzzy and unfocused. It’s dif?cult to de?ne interesting, and the sentence doesn’t give the reader any cues about where the essay is going. STRATEGY Focus your thesis with concrete language and a clear plan. Pose a question about the topic that has more than one answer. For example: How does the physical structure of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial shape the experience of visitors? Your thesis — your answer to the question — should use speci?c language that engages readers to follow your argument. REVISED THESIS C2-b By inviting visitors to see their own re?ections in the wall, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial creates a link between the present and the past. Draft the body. The body of your essay develops support for your thesis, so it’s important to have at least a working thesis before you start writing. What does your thesis promise readers? Try to keep your response to that question in mind as you draft the body. thesis • main idea • support • conclusion C2-c You may already have written an introduction that includes your working thesis. If not, as long as you have a draft thesis, you can begin developing the body and return later to the introduction. If your thesis suggests a plan or if you have sketched a preliminary outline, try to block out your paragraphs accordingly. Draft the body of your essay by writing at least a paragraph about each supporting point you listed in the planning stage. If you do not have a plan, pause for a few moments and sketch one (see C1-d). Keep in mind that often you might not know what you want to say until you have written a draft. It is possible to begin without a plan — assuming you are prepared to treat your ?rst attempt as a “discovery draft” that will be radically rewritten once you discover what you really want to say. Whether or not you have a plan when you begin drafting, you can often ?gure out a workable order for your ideas by stopping each time you start a new paragraph, to think about what your readers will need to know to follow your train of thought. For more detailed adv … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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