Temple University PSYC2102 Effects of Caregiving on Cancer Caregivers

Temple University PSYC2102 Effects of Caregiving on Cancer Caregivers ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Temple University PSYC2102 Effects of Caregiving on Cancer Caregivers psyc2102_sample_final_paper.doc article_1_cancer.pdf article_2_cancer.pdf article_3_cancer.pdf article_4_cancer.pdf article_5_cancer.pdf Telepsychology: A Double Edged Sword As technology continues to expand in this modern world, so too must the offerings of the field of psychology. Not only are psychologists expected to meet the evolving needs of the client of the 21 st century, vague ethical guidelines must be strictly followed. According to Gerald Koocher, and as quoted during his American Psychological Association (APA) presidential address, telepsychology “remains one of the most rapidly evolving areas of professional practice, and one of the ripest areas for clinical research” (2007). Temple University PSYC2102 Effects of Caregiving on Cancer Caregivers Several studies have been performed in the field of telepsychology, illuminating findings based on various modalities of telepsychology, as well as their perceived quality of these remote encounters (Rees & Haythornthwaite, 2004; Morgan et al, 2008; Rees & Stone, 2005) and the perception of the laws that govern telepsychology (Koocher & Morray, 2000; Barnett & Scheetz, 2003). As technology marches onward, so too do the offerings in the field of psychology. As psychology, the human science, is moving towards this less personal experience, the ethics of offering services through this modality is questioned. Besides concerns of privacy, confidentiality, and governing local laws, is telepsychology a high-quality addition to the field? New technology brings new concerns, but at the core telepsychology must be just as therapeutic as in-person sessions before it can be adopted as a practitioner’s tool (Derrig-Palumbo and Zeine, 2005). It is hypothesized that the most important aspect of telepsychology being therapeutic is the perception of the quality received, as well as the strength of the client-therapist relationship as perceived through telepsychologic means. The following literature reviews attempt to support this hypothesis. Literature Review As indicated by Gerald Koocher (2007) during the 2006 APA presidential address, the future of psychology rests firmly in the hands of telepsychology. Not only must the psychologists of the future embrace this new technology, it must be done carefully, in order to maintain beneficence and nonmaleficence. Further, extra caution must be exercised as the practitioner in order to avoid unnecessary legal or ethical risks. Koocher illustrates the planned vagueness of the current ethical principles and standards, stating that the ethical codes and standards do not prohibit services of telepsychology. A main point made by Koocher is that if future psychologists are to expand services through means of remote delivery, psychologists must maintain competence in those new arenas. Failure to do so will not result in a therapeutic relationship (Koocher, 2007). Taking the concept of forming a therapeutic alliance further, psychologists Clare Rees and Sheona Stone tested samples of practicing clinical psychologists to see if the psychologist’s own perception of the “therapeutic alliance” was altered based on the method of therapeutic delivery, thereby impacting the quality offered, rather than received (2005). Their research indicated that there was a significant difference in the perception of the therapeutic alliance as determined by the method of therapeutic delivery, finding that the psychologist’s own perception of quality of the relationship was much lower in the videoconferenced sample, as compared to the traditional method of therapy. Rees and Stone noted that less than 1% of all psychologists in the United States have used videoconferencing or other methods of telepsychology, but more than 68% have used the telephone in practice. Rees and Stone believe this incongruence is due to comfort with alternative therapy methods, or comfort level with using the new technology (2005). Other studies have been performed, focusing on the perception of the therapeutic quality by the client, rather than the clinician. This study compared the perception of quality of therapeutic services received and was delivered through two modalities: video teleconferencing, or face-to-face (traditional) therapy. Sessions were matched on multiple factors, including length, content, and tone. The researchers indicated that the clients’ perception of quality was not statistically different between the treatment conditions; clients found similar levels of satisfaction, quality, and connection to the therapist in both groups. This study, as performed by Robert Morgan and Amber Patrick of Texas Tech University, warrants further research as the results are only generalizable to the population selected: incarcerated male inmates, required to participate in treatment. While the findings do show promise and a possibility of wider generalization, these results are limited strictly to the population tested (2008). Temple University PSYC2102 Effects of Caregiving on Cancer Caregivers In an attempt to increase use of videoconferencing technology as a therapeutic tool, psychologists Rees and Haythornthwaite created specific guidelines to increase levels of comfort for both the therapist, as well as the client. Of common concern for both the therapist and the client is anxiety borne from using the new technology, a decreased amount of feedback, and more passivity by the participants of the teleconferenced session. Rees and Haythornthwaite hypothesized that the perception of these concerns negatively impacts the quality of the session at the outset. Rees and Haythornthwaite have suggested that both therapist and client would become more comfortable with the new technology by simply using it more frequently, indicating that frequency of use greatly reduces anxiety. Noted areas of concern include the legalities of delivering treatment over large distances, specifically across state lines. Rees and Haythornthwaite recommend intimate knowledge of the laws that govern both locations in order to avoid possible infractions, as well as maintenance of governing ethical standards and principles. Rees and Haythornthwaite note that with the introduction of new technologies comes new problems. In this instance, some issues of concern may be equipment failure, or ensuring that there is a local mental health professional contact available for the client, should an emergency arise. The latter concern is somewhat paradoxical, as telepsychology is being touted as a means to deliver services to those far removed from traditional therapists, among other reasons (2004). These factors from the aforementioned studies and articles combine to lend credibility to the hypothesis that perception is key in determining a quality therapeutic experience when receiving therapy through means other than in-person interaction. Therefore, perception of both the strength of the client-therapist relationship, as well as the quality of therapeutic services received will impact the overall reported therapeutic benefit of the session. While prior studies have measured various aspects of the quality of telepsychology, the results have been for a specific population and did not include females, adolescents, children, or others not presently enrolled in a corrections facility. Further, most of the published studies used “wait-list” procedures, rather than in-person therapy as a control group (Koocher, 2007). This research is warranted by a lack of information pertaining to “average” people, voluntarily seeking counseling. To better understand these results on the population at large, a more diverse base of participants must be sampled and measured. References Barnett, J. E., & Scheetz, K. (2003). Technological advances and telehealth: Ethics, law, and the practice of psychotherapy . Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 40 , 86–93. Temple University PSYC2102 Effects of Caregiving on Cancer Caregivers Derrig-Palumbo, K., & Zeine, F. (2005). Online therapy: A therapist’s guide to expanding your practice . New York: W.W. Norton. Koocher, G.P. (2007). APA presidential address: Twenty-first century ethical challenges for psychology. American Psychologist. 62 , 375-384. Koocher, G.P., & Morray, E (2000). Regulation of telepsychology: A survey of State Attorneys General. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 31 , 503-508. Morgan, R.D., Patrick, A.R., & Magaletta, P.R. (2008). Does the use of telemental health alter the treatment experience? Inmates’ perceptions of telemental health versus face-to-face treatment modalities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 76 , 158-162. Rees, C. S., & Haythornthwaite, S. (2004). Telepsychology and videoconferencing: Issues, opportunities, and guidelines for psychologists. Australian Psychologist. 39 , 212-219. Rees, C.S., & Stone, S. (2005). Therapeutic alliance in face-to-face versus videoconferenced psychotherapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 36 , 649-653. Seligman, M.E.P. (1995).The effectiveness of psychotherapy: The Consumer Reports study. American Psychologist. 50 , 965-974. Temple University PSYC2102 Effects of Caregiving on Cancer Caregivers Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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Temple University PSYC2102 Effects of Caregiving on Cancer Caregivers

Temple University PSYC2102 Effects of Caregiving on Cancer Caregivers ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Temple University PSYC2102 Effects of Caregiving on Cancer Caregivers psyc2102_sample_final_paper.doc article_1_cancer.pdf article_2_cancer.pdf article_3_cancer.pdf article_4_cancer.pdf article_5_cancer.pdf Telepsychology: A Double Edged Sword As technology continues to expand in this modern world, so too must the offerings of the field of psychology. Not only are psychologists expected to meet the evolving needs of the client of the 21 st century, vague ethical guidelines must be strictly followed. According to Gerald Koocher, and as quoted during his American Psychological Association (APA) presidential address, telepsychology “remains one of the most rapidly evolving areas of professional practice, and one of the ripest areas for clinical research” (2007). Temple University PSYC2102 Effects of Caregiving on Cancer Caregivers Several studies have been performed in the field of telepsychology, illuminating findings based on various modalities of telepsychology, as well as their perceived quality of these remote encounters (Rees & Haythornthwaite, 2004; Morgan et al, 2008; Rees & Stone, 2005) and the perception of the laws that govern telepsychology (Koocher & Morray, 2000; Barnett & Scheetz, 2003). As technology marches onward, so too do the offerings in the field of psychology. As psychology, the human science, is moving towards this less personal experience, the ethics of offering services through this modality is questioned. Besides concerns of privacy, confidentiality, and governing local laws, is telepsychology a high-quality addition to the field? New technology brings new concerns, but at the core telepsychology must be just as therapeutic as in-person sessions before it can be adopted as a practitioner’s tool (Derrig-Palumbo and Zeine, 2005). It is hypothesized that the most important aspect of telepsychology being therapeutic is the perception of the quality received, as well as the strength of the client-therapist relationship as perceived through telepsychologic means. The following literature reviews attempt to support this hypothesis. Literature Review As indicated by Gerald Koocher (2007) during the 2006 APA presidential address, the future of psychology rests firmly in the hands of telepsychology. Not only must the psychologists of the future embrace this new technology, it must be done carefully, in order to maintain beneficence and nonmaleficence. Further, extra caution must be exercised as the practitioner in order to avoid unnecessary legal or ethical risks. Koocher illustrates the planned vagueness of the current ethical principles and standards, stating that the ethical codes and standards do not prohibit services of telepsychology. A main point made by Koocher is that if future psychologists are to expand services through means of remote delivery, psychologists must maintain competence in those new arenas. Failure to do so will not result in a therapeutic relationship (Koocher, 2007). Taking the concept of forming a therapeutic alliance further, psychologists Clare Rees and Sheona Stone tested samples of practicing clinical psychologists to see if the psychologist’s own perception of the “therapeutic alliance” was altered based on the method of therapeutic delivery, thereby impacting the quality offered, rather than received (2005). Their research indicated that there was a significant difference in the perception of the therapeutic alliance as determined by the method of therapeutic delivery, finding that the psychologist’s own perception of quality of the relationship was much lower in the videoconferenced sample, as compared to the traditional method of therapy. Rees and Stone noted that less than 1% of all psychologists in the United States have used videoconferencing or other methods of telepsychology, but more than 68% have used the telephone in practice. Rees and Stone believe this incongruence is due to comfort with alternative therapy methods, or comfort level with using the new technology (2005). Other studies have been performed, focusing on the perception of the therapeutic quality by the client, rather than the clinician. This study compared the perception of quality of therapeutic services received and was delivered through two modalities: video teleconferencing, or face-to-face (traditional) therapy. Sessions were matched on multiple factors, including length, content, and tone. The researchers indicated that the clients’ perception of quality was not statistically different between the treatment conditions; clients found similar levels of satisfaction, quality, and connection to the therapist in both groups. This study, as performed by Robert Morgan and Amber Patrick of Texas Tech University, warrants further research as the results are only generalizable to the population selected: incarcerated male inmates, required to participate in treatment. While the findings do show promise and a possibility of wider generalization, these results are limited strictly to the population tested (2008). Temple University PSYC2102 Effects of Caregiving on Cancer Caregivers In an attempt to increase use of videoconferencing technology as a therapeutic tool, psychologists Rees and Haythornthwaite created specific guidelines to increase levels of comfort for both the therapist, as well as the client. Of common concern for both the therapist and the client is anxiety borne from using the new technology, a decreased amount of feedback, and more passivity by the participants of the teleconferenced session. Rees and Haythornthwaite hypothesized that the perception of these concerns negatively impacts the quality of the session at the outset. Rees and Haythornthwaite have suggested that both therapist and client would become more comfortable with the new technology by simply using it more frequently, indicating that frequency of use greatly reduces anxiety. Noted areas of concern include the legalities of delivering treatment over large distances, specifically across state lines. Rees and Haythornthwaite recommend intimate knowledge of the laws that govern both locations in order to avoid possible infractions, as well as maintenance of governing ethical standards and principles. Rees and Haythornthwaite note that with the introduction of new technologies comes new problems. In this instance, some issues of concern may be equipment failure, or ensuring that there is a local mental health professional contact available for the client, should an emergency arise. The latter concern is somewhat paradoxical, as telepsychology is being touted as a means to deliver services to those far removed from traditional therapists, among other reasons (2004). These factors from the aforementioned studies and articles combine to lend credibility to the hypothesis that perception is key in determining a quality therapeutic experience when receiving therapy through means other than in-person interaction. Therefore, perception of both the strength of the client-therapist relationship, as well as the quality of therapeutic services received will impact the overall reported therapeutic benefit of the session. While prior studies have measured various aspects of the quality of telepsychology, the results have been for a specific population and did not include females, adolescents, children, or others not presently enrolled in a corrections facility. Further, most of the published studies used “wait-list” procedures, rather than in-person therapy as a control group (Koocher, 2007). This research is warranted by a lack of information pertaining to “average” people, voluntarily seeking counseling. To better understand these results on the population at large, a more diverse base of participants must be sampled and measured. References Barnett, J. E., & Scheetz, K. (2003). Technological advances and telehealth: Ethics, law, and the practice of psychotherapy . Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 40 , 86–93. Temple University PSYC2102 Effects of Caregiving on Cancer Caregivers Derrig-Palumbo, K., & Zeine, F. (2005). Online therapy: A therapist’s guide to expanding your practice . New York: W.W. Norton. Koocher, G.P. (2007). APA presidential address: Twenty-first century ethical challenges for psychology. American Psychologist. 62 , 375-384. Koocher, G.P., & Morray, E (2000). Regulation of telepsychology: A survey of State Attorneys General. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 31 , 503-508. Morgan, R.D., Patrick, A.R., & Magaletta, P.R. (2008). Does the use of telemental health alter the treatment experience? Inmates’ perceptions of telemental health versus face-to-face treatment modalities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 76 , 158-162. Rees, C. S., & Haythornthwaite, S. (2004). Telepsychology and videoconferencing: Issues, opportunities, and guidelines for psychologists. Australian Psychologist. 39 , 212-219. Rees, C.S., & Stone, S. (2005). Therapeutic alliance in face-to-face versus videoconferenced psychotherapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 36 , 649-653. Seligman, M.E.P. (1995).The effectiveness of psychotherapy: The Consumer Reports study. American Psychologist. 50 , 965-974. Temple University PSYC2102 Effects of Caregiving on Cancer Caregivers Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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