Transgender in the criminal justice system essay

Transgender in the criminal justice system essay ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Transgender in the criminal justice system essay Critical Analysis Paper: You will write a 5-6-page paper on an individually-selected topic. You can choose any topic relating to sex, power and politics. For example some possible topics include sex and disability, political scandals, gender in advertisements, etc. To successfully write the paper, you need to consult library sources and find academic articles on your topic (i.e.: find readings not covered in class). You should use PRIMARY academic resources (not newspapers or magazines or webpages) such as original research from academic sources (usually journal articles from peer reviewed journals or academic books). Please see below for article on “Determine if your Source is Scholarly. Transgender in the criminal justice system essay Your papers should contain academic resources, including in-text citations and a reference list/bibliography Your OWN original topic and argument, including a clear thesis statement. Papers you wrote in other classes are not eligible for credit Have a similarity rate of under 10% (not including references or quotes) You cannot use a paper you used for another class — you cannot get credit for one paper in two classes Your citations and reference list should be in APA format (abstracts are optional) At least 5 sources outside of class readings (we highly recommend using Zotero) Your references can include readings from class but must also include at least 5 outside academic references Be double-spaced with one-inch margins and have a title page The topic for this paper will be *Transgender in the criminal justice system* There are two files that I uploaded to help start your search your sources. Transgender in the criminal justice system essay captivegenders.pdf sexual_abuse_to_pr C A P T I V E G E N D E R S trans embodiment and the prison industrial complex eric a. stanley & nat smith, editors advance praise for captive genders _________________________________________ “Captive Genders is an exciting assemblage of writings—analyses, manifestos, stories, interviews—that traverse the complicated entanglements of surveillance, policing, imprisonment, and the production of gender normativity. Focusing discerningly on the encounter of transpersons with the apparatuses that constitute the prison industrial complex, the contributors to this volume create new frameworks and new vocabularies that surely will have a transformative impact on the theories and practices of twenty-first century abolition.” —Angela Y. Davis, professor emerita, University of California, Santa Cruz “The purpose of prison abolition is to discover and promote the countless ways freedom and difference are mutually dependent. The contributors to Captive Genders brilliantly shatter the assumption that the antidote to danger is human sacrifice. In other words, for these thinkers: where life is precious life is precious.” —Ruth Wilson Gilmore, author of Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing California “Captive Genders is at once a scathing and necessary analysis of the prison industrial complex and a history of queer resistance to state tyranny. By analyzing the root causes of anti-queer and anti-trans violence, this book exposes the brutality of state control over queer/trans bodies inside and outside prison walls, and proposes an analytical framework for undoing not just the prison system, but its mechanisms of surveillance, dehumanization, and containment. By queering a prison abolition analysis, Captive Genders moves us to imagine the impossible dream of liberation.” —Mattilda Bernstein Sycamore, author of So Many Ways to Sleep Badly and editor of Nobody Passes: Rejecting the Rules of Gender and Conformity c a p t i v e g e n d e r s Trans Embodiment and the Prison Industrial Complex e d i t e d b y e r i c a . s ta n l e y and nat smith Captive Genders: Trans Embodiment and the Prison Industrial Complex Edited by Eric A. Stanley and Nat Smith All essays © 2011 by their respective authors This edition © 2011 AK Press (Edinburgh, Oakland, Baltimore) ISBN-13: 978-1-84935-070-9 Library of Congress Control Number: 2011920478 AK Press 674-A 23rd Street Oakland, CA 94612 USA www.akpress.org [email protected] AK Press UK PO Box 12766 Edinburgh EH8 9YE Scotland www.akuk.com [email protected] The above addresses would be delighted to provide you with the latest AK Press distribution catalog, which features several thousand books, pamphlets, zines, audio and video recordings, and gear, all published or distributed by AK Press. Alternately, visit our websites to browse the catalog and find out the latest news from the world of anarchist publishing: www.akpress.org | www.akuk.com revolutionbythebook.akpress.org Printed in Canada on 100% recycled, acid-free paper with union labor. Cover image: Marie Ueda, photo from the White Night riots, San Francisco, CA 1979 Courtesy of the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Historical Society. Cover by Kate Khatib | www.manifestor.org/design Interior by Michelle Fleming with Kate Khatib contents Acknowledgements…Transgender in the criminal justice system essay …………………………………………………………………..ix Introduction: Fugitive Flesh: Gender Self-Determination, Queer Abolition, and Trans Resistance……………………………………………..1 Eric A. Stanley out of time: from gay liberation to prison abolition Building an Abolitionist Trans & Queer Movement with Everything We’ve Got………………………………………………………………..15 Morgan Bassichis, Alexander Lee, Dean Spade “Street Power” and the Claiming of Public Space: San Francisco’s “Vanguard” and Pre-Stonewall Queer Radicalism……………………………41 Jennifer Worley Brushes with Lily Law………………………………………………………………..57 Tommi Avicolli Mecca Looking Back: The Bathhouse Raids in Toronto, 1981…………………….63 Nadia Guidotto prison beyond the prison: criminalization of the everyday “Rounding Up the Homosexuals”: The Impact of Juvenile Court on Queer and Trans/Gender-Non-Conforming Youth………………………….77 Wesley Ware Hotel Hell: With Continual References to the Insurrection………………85 Ralowe T. Ampu Regulatory Sites: Management, Confinement, and HIV/AIDS…………………………………………………………………………99 Michelle C. Potts Awful Acts and the Trouble with Normal: A Personal Treatise on Sex Offenders…………………………………………..113 Erica R. Meiners How to Make Prisons Disappear: Queer Immigrants, the Shackles of Love, and the Invisibility of the Prison Industrial Complex…………….123 Yasmin Nair Identities Under Siege: Violence Against Transpersons of Color………………………………………..141 Lori A. Saffin walled lives: consolidating difference, disappearing possibilities Krystal Is Kristopher and Vice Versa……………………………………………165 Kristopher Shelley “Krystal” “The Only Freedom I Can See:” Imprisoned Queer Writing and the Politics of the Unimaginable………………………………………………………169 Stephen Dillon Being an Incarcerated Transperson: Shouldn’t People Care?……………185 Clifton Goring/Candi Raine Sweet Out of Compliance: Masculine-Identified People in Women’s Prisons…………………………………………………………189 Lori Girshick My Story………………………………………………………………………………..209 Paula Rae Witherspoon Exposure………………………………………………………………………………..215 Cholo No One Enters Like Them: Health, Gender Variance, and the PIC…217 blake nemec bustin’ out: organizing resistance and building alternatives Transforming Carceral Logics: 10 Reasons to Dismantle the Prison Industrial Complex Using a Queer/Trans Analysis………………………..235 S. Lambel Making It Happen, Mama: A Conversation with Miss Major………….267 Jayden Donahue gender wars: state changing shape, passing to play, & body of our movements…………………………………………………………………………….281 Vanessa Huang Maroon Abolitionists: Black Gender-oppressed Activists in the AntiPrison Movement in the US and Canada…………………………………….293 Julia Sudbury AKA Julia C. Oparah Abolitionist Imaginings: A Conversation with Bo Brown, Reina Gossett, and Dylan Rodríguez…………………………………………..323 Che Gossett tools/resources Picturing the PIC Exercise…………………………………………………………345 Critical Resistance Questions for Abolitionist Work: 7 Easy Steps……………………………..349 Critical Resistance Addressing the Prison Industrial Complex: Case Studies………………..355 Nat Smith Resource List………………………………………………………………………….357 Contributors Bios……………………………………………………………………Transgender in the criminal justice system essay 359 acknowledgements Like all struggle we have not acted alone. We would like to acknowledge the labor, support, and guidance of the following people: Ralowe T. Ampu, Ryan Conrad, Angela Y. Davis, Jay Donahue, Jason Fritz, Ruth Wilson Gilmore, Donna Haraway, Rachel Herzing, Rebecca Hurdis, Kentaro Kaneko, Colby Lenz, Matt Luton, Toshio Meronek, José Muñoz, Yasmin Nair, Isaac Ontiveros, Julia Chinyere Oparah, Adam Reed, Andrea Ritchie, Chris Smith, the late Will Smith, Dean Spade, Mattilda Bernstein Sycamore, Chris Vargas, and Ari Wohlfeiler. Working with organizations, collectives, and with unaffiliated people is essential to grounding the analysis put forth by this book. While central to the project of abolition, writing must always be produced within the context of action. Similarly, action devoid of analysis often makes for shaky ground upon which to build. AK Press has been supportive of this project from its beginning many years ago. We are also grateful for the people who have and continue to organize with the Bay Area NJ4 Solidarity Committee, Critical Resistance, Gay Shame, the Sylvia Rivera Law Project, Transgender, Gender Variant, and Intersex Justice Project, and the amazing people who organized Transforming Justice, the groundbreaking conference held in 2007. Captive Genders is evidence of a collective dedication to abolishing the prison industrial complex (PIC). When we first started talking about a possible writing project in 2006 we wanted to push the LGBT movement towards a deeper understanding of the role the PIC plays in our lives. Specifically we wanted to focus on the ways in which the LGBT ix Captive Genders mainstream, through its racist logic, relies on the PIC and is used by the PIC to criminalize transgender, gender variant, and queer people. We also wanted to push the anti-prison and PIC abolition movements to more centrally incorporate and foreground the struggles of transgender, gender variant, and queer people. We started by making it clear that we wanted to emphasize writing from folks currently inside as well as former prisoners. Importantly, discussions of exploitation, inclusion without tokenization, and risking prisoner safety due to the content of our correspondence were in the forefront. We attempted to contact all of the members of Transgender, Gender Variant, and Intersex Justice Project’s contact list as well as our personal contacts. The Sylvia Rivera Law Project and additional organizations encouraged members to contribute. Of the hundred or so letters sent out and ads posted in prisoner publications, we received relatively few responses. This makes sense because prison mail is “unreliable” as guards will often tamper with or simply destroy it, whether it is considered contraband or they just don’t feel like sorting mail that day. Furthermore, guards sometimes hold a vendetta against activist and/or “othered” prisoners and frequently “disappear” their mail. While our letters explained openly and honestly what we were attempting to accomplish, some folks inside were understandably wary from being burned by supposed claims of support by others in the past and declined to submit. While we recognize that access to writing resources, supporting documents, and editorial assistance are limited if not completely absent inside, only a small number of the submissions were editable within our timeframe and our own limited resources. Transgender in the criminal justice system essay Additionally and unfortunately, authors of a few pieces we had chosen for publication were un-locatable as their housing had changed (and a few folks were released on parole!) and thus we could no longer contact them (though we tried). Because of these and other reasons related to mail communication and the busyness of our lives, it took a long time to gather pieces that we felt demonstrated a broad and essential scope. Finally, a few contributions (from both within and outside prison) we were holding out for never materialized and there are definitely some important ideas and voices missing. However, we collectively covered a lot of important ground that will make room for even more organizing and writing in the future, and we invite you to join or continue your participation in both. Ultimately, Captive Genders is a powerful offering of struggle, innovation, comeuppance and sorrow; a call to arms and a cry for true, self-determined justice. x fUgitive flesH: gender self-determination, Queer abolition, and trans resistance Eric A. Stanley We always felt that the police were the real enemy. —Sylvia Rivera Bright lights shattered the dark anonymity of the dance floor. The flicker warned of the danger of the coming raid. Well experienced, people stopped dancing, changed clothing, removed or applied makeup, and got ready. The police entered, began examining everyone’s IDs, and lined up the trans/gender-non-conforming folks to be “checked” by an officer in the restroom to ensure that they were wearing the legally mandated three pieces of “gender appropriate clothing.” Simultaneously the cops started roughing up people, dragging them out front to the awaiting paddy wagon. In other words, it was a regular June night out on the town for trans and queer folks in 1969 New York City. 1 Captive Genders As the legend goes, that night the cops did not receive their payoff or they wanted to remind the patrons of their precarious existence. In the shadows of New York nightlife, the Stonewall Inn, like most other “gay bars,” was owned and run by the mafia, which tended to have the connections within local government and the vice squad to know who to bribe in order to keep the bar raids at a minimum and the cash flowing. As the first few captured queers were forced into the paddy wagon, people hanging around outside the bar began throwing pocket change at the arresting officers; then the bottles started flying and then the bricks. With the majority of the patrons now outside the bar, a crowd of angry trans/queer folks had gathered and forced the police to retreat back into the Stonewall. As their collective fury grew, a few people uprooted a parking meter and used it as a battering ram in hopes of knocking down the bar’s door and escalating the physical confrontation with the cops. A tactical team was called to rescue the vice squad now barricaded inside the Stonewall. They eventually arrived, and the street battle raged for two more nights. In a blast of radical collectivity, trans/gender-non-conforming folks, queers of color, butches, drag queens, hair-fairies, homeless street youth, sex workers, and others took up arms and fought back against the generations of oppression that they were forced to survive.1 Forty years later, on a similarly muggy June night in 2009, history repeated itself. At the Rainbow Lounge, a newly opened gay bar in Fort Worth, Texas, the police staged a raid, verbally harassing patrons, calling them “faggots” and beating a number of customers. One patron was slammed against the floor, sending him to the hospital with brain injuries, while seven others were arrested. Transgender in the criminal justice system essay These instances of brutal force and the administrative surveillance that trans and queer folks face today are not significantly less prevalent nor less traumatic than those experienced by the Stonewall rioters of 1969, however the ways this violence is currently understood is quite different. While community vigils and public forums were held in the wake of the Rainbow Lounge raid, the immediate response was not to fight back, nor has there been much attempt to understand the raid in the broader context of the systematic violence trans and queer people face under the relentless force of the prison industrial complex (PIC).2 Captive Genders is in part an attempt to think about the historical and political ideologies that continually naturalize the abusive force of the police with such power as to make them appear ordinary. This is not to argue that the types of resistance present at the Stonewall riots were com2 Introduction monplace during that time, nor to suggest that trans and queer folks do not fight back today; nonetheless one of our aims is to chart the multiple ways that trans and queer folks are subjugated by the police, along with the multiple ways that we have and that we continue to resist in the face of these overwhelming structures.3 I start with the Stonewall riot not because it was the first, most important, or last instance of radical refusal of the police state. Indeed, the riots at San Francisco’s Compton’s Cafeteria in 1966 and at Los Angeles’s Cooper’s Doughnuts in 1959 remind us that the history of resistance is as long as the history of oppression. However, what is unique about the Stonewall uprising is that, within the United States context, it is made to symbolize the “birth of the gay rights movement.” Furthermore, dominant lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) political organizations like the Human Rights Campaign (HRC) and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (NGLTF) attempt to build an arc of progress starting with the oppression of the Stonewall moment and ending in the current time of “equality” evidenced by campaigns for gay marriage, hate crimes legislation, and gays in the military. Captive Genders works to undo this narrative of progress, assimilation, and police cooperation by building an analysis that highlights the historical and contemporary antagonisms between trans/queer folks and the police state.4 This collection argues that prison abolition must be one of the centers of trans and queer liberation struggles. Starting with abolition we open questions often disappeared by both mainstream LGBT and antiprison movements. Among these many silences are the radical trans/queer arguments against the proliferation of hate crimes enhancements. Mainstream LGBT organizations, in collaboration with the state, have been working hard to make us believe that hate crimes enhancements are a necessary and useful way to make trans and queer people safer. Hate crimes enhancements are used to add time to a person’s sentence if the offense is deemed to target a group of people. Transgender in the criminal justice system essay However, hate crimes enhancements ignore the roots of harm, do not act as deterrents, and reproduce the force of the PIC, which produces more, not less harm. Not surprisingly, in October 2009, when President Obama signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act into law, extending existing hate crimes enhancements to include “gender and sexuality,” there was no mention by the LGBT mainstream of the historical and contemporary ways that the legal system itself works to deaden trans and queer lives. As antidote, this collection works to understand how gender, sexuality, race, 3 Captive Genders ability, class, nationality, and other markers of difference are constricted, often to the point of liquidation, in the name of a normative carceral state. Among the most volatile points of contact between state violence and one’s body is the domain of gender. An understanding of these connections has produced much important activism and research that explores how non-trans women are uniquely harmed through disproportionate prison sentences, sexual assault while in custody, and nonexistent medical care, coupled with other forms of violence. This work was and continues to be a necessary intervention in the ways that prison studies and activism have historically imagined the prisoner as always male and have until recently rarely attended to the ways that gendered difference produces carceral differences. Similarly, queer studies and political organizing, along with the growing body of work that might be called trans studies—while attending to the work of gender, sexuality, and more recently to race and nationality—has (with important exceptions) had little to say about the force of imprisonment or about trans/queer prisoners. Productively, we see this as both an absence and an opening for those of us working in trans/queer studies to attend—in a way that centers the experiences of those most directly impacted—to the ways that the prison must emerge as one of the major sites of trans/queer scholarship and political organizing.5 In moments of frustration, excitement, isolation, and solidarity, Captive Genders grew out of this friction as a rogue text, a necessarily unstable collection of voices, stories, analysis, and plans for action. What these pieces all have in common is that … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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