Types of Hypersensitivity Reactions Discussion

Types of Hypersensitivity Reactions Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Types of Hypersensitivity Reactions Discussion They should be your own, original, and free from plagiarism. Follow APA format for writing style, spelling and grammar, and citation of sources. Types of Hypersensitivity Reactions Discussion Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. Respond to at least two of your classmates. Participate in the discussion by analyzing each response for completeness and accuracy and by suggesting specific additions or clarifications for improving the discussion question response. Sheena John posted Jul 23, 2020 11:50 PM Subscribe Hypersensitivity is the body’s immune response to antigens that leads to disease or injury the individual (McCance & Huether, 2019). These responses can be immediate or delayed. There are two classifications of hypersensitivity. The way in which the antigen developed or the mechanism that yielded the disease McCance & Huether, 2019). Antigens can be developed from allergy, alloimmunity, or autoimmunity to cause hypersensitivity. The environmental antigens cause the allergy (McCance & Huether,2019). Antigens that enter the body from another host causes alloimmunity and antigens produced by one’s own body causes autoimmunity (McCance & Huether, 2019). Mechanisms that cause hypersensitivity have 4 types; Type I, Type II, Type III, and Type IV (McCance & Huether, 2019). Type I is an IgE – mediated reaction which is generated by the products of mast cells and typically occur from the antigens in the environment (McCance & Huether, 2019). Type II is a tissue-specific reaction occurs when a direct cell becomes the target of the immune response (McCance & Huether, 2019). Type III is an immune complex-mediated reaction caused by antigen-antibody structures that developed in circulation. Once the antibody attaches itself to a soluble antigen it enters into the tissue or vessel walls sparking an immune reaction with the release of neutrophils (McCance & Huether, 2019). Type IV is cell-mediated reaction is the only hypersensitivity mechanism that is not driven by antibodies. Rather it is regulated by T- lymphocytes that destroy “cellular targets” (McCance & Huether, 2019). In the case study the infant is having an immediate hypersensitivity reaction, as she just had booster shots 6 hours ago. She may potentially be suffering from cutaneous anaphylaxis as the symptoms are “local to the site of exposure” (McCance & Huether) as evidence by the swelling and redness to the right thigh. She has a temperature of 101.3 Fahrenheit, which is common and a sign of an immune response taking place (Cohut, 2018). Vaccines can cause type III hypersensitivities according to McCance and Huether (2018). Hypersensitivity to vaccinations are not uncommon (McNeil & DeStefano, 2018). However vaccines are an intervention that has proven its effectiveness in the reduction of transmission of infectious diseases (McNeil & DeStefano, 2018). Therefore the reactions the hypersensitive reaction sustained by the infant is fairly minor and the NP should recommend continuing the recommended vaccinations (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). Reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017). Preventing and managing adverse reactions. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/general-recs/adverse-reactions.html Cohut, M. (2018). Why fever can be your friend in times of illness. Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321889sustained McCance K., L., & Huether, S., E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children (8th ed.) St Louis, MO: Mosby Inc McNiel, M. M. & DeStefano, F. (2018). Vaccine-associated hypersensitivity. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6602527/ Derender Bailey posted Jul 25, 2020 10:23 PM Subscribe Types of Hypersensitivity Reactions Hypersensitivity reactions are exaggerated immune responses to chemical components. These may be external or typical body components that the immune system marks as non-self. There are four categories of these immune reactions. Each of the reactions has different pathophysiology and sequential presentations. Type I or immediate hypersensitivity is mediated through IgE activation of inflammatory immune cells such as mast cells. This reaction occurs when an individual is re-exposed to an external component that the body had previously marked as an antigen (Barret, 2019). These reactions are, therefore, more violent during the second and subsequent exposures to the irritant. The main features of these reactions primarily include the cardinal inflammation signs such as injection site swelling or anaphylaxis. On the other hand, type II hypersensitivity is activated by direct attack of antigens on cells by IgM and IgG. Barret (2019), defines this type of immunoreaction as cytotoxic because in attacking the cells, the antibodies don’t spare the cells with the marked antigens. The antigens may be foreign or autoimmunity. In autoimmunity, a faulty immune system identifies self-cells as foreign and marks them for direct destruction. An example is in Goodpasture’s syndrome. Type III reactions are a consequence of the accumulation of uncleared immune complexes in the body. Since these antibody-antigen complexes are considered foreign, the immune system targets them for destruction. During the destruction, other tissues around the reaction point are also damaged. This is the case for diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, where lodged complexes in joints lead to joint destruction. Type IV reactions are known as delayed immune reactions as they occur beyond a day of the irritation episode (Chen, 2018). They are mediated by the cellular T cell immune reactions like the case in contact dermatitis that occurs over a day to the sensitization. The delay is because of the time needed for the manufacture of these T cells. Describe what type of hypersensitivity reaction is involved in this case, and support with evidence. The patient in the case discussed is a victim of type I immune reaction. The reason behind it is that, first, the patient was taken to the hospital just six hours in which the leg had considerable swelling. This indicates the immediate nature of the hypersensitivity. Secondly, is the typical symptoms of inflammation joint in this type of inflammation. Finally, the patient received a booster, second dose, meaning that they had been initially sensitized in the first vaccination—all these support types I hypersensitivity. According to national guidelines, what would you advise parents regarding further immunization practices? The immediate reaction should be treated with histamine. The child will also need to get the remaining but under close observation. Complete cessation would only be recommended in moderate and severe reactions. Describe the pathophysiological basis for this type of hypersensitivity reaction. During the first exposure to the antigen, IgE is produced in place of the normal immunoglobulins M and G. The IgE antibodies bind to mast cells and basophils, which is the process of sensitization (Caballero, 2020). In the subsequent attacks, the antigen stimulates the release of these cells, which results in the production of histamine, leukotriene, and prostaglandins. The inflammatory and pain markers increase the leaking potential of blood vessels through enlargement of the vascular lumen. All these lead to redness, hotness, and pain in the affected area. Types of Hypersensitivity Reactions Discussion References Barrett, K. E., Barman, S. M., Brooks, H. L., & Yuan, J. X. J. (2019). Ganong’s review of medical physiology. McGraw-Hill Education. Caballero, M. L., & Quirce, S. (2020). Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions Caused by Drug Excipients: A Literature Review. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol, 30(2), 86-100. Chen, C. B., Abe, R., Pan, R. Y., Wang, C. W., Hung, S. I., Tsai, Y. G., & Chung, W. H. (2018). An Updated Review of the Molecular Mechanisms in Drug Hypersensitivity. Journal of immunology research, 2018, 6431694. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6431694 Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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