University of Maryland PSYC 320 Biopsychology Questions and Answers Discussion

University of Maryland PSYC 320 Biopsychology Questions and Answers Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON University of Maryland PSYC 320 Biopsychology Questions and Answers Discussion 1. Neurons, Nodes of Ranvier, Telencephalon and Astrocytes are some of the terms you learned in this chapter. How did do learn all the terms and concepts? Please share with us the methods and techniques you used to learn and understand the meaning of concepts and terms in this chapter. This information could be helpful to others studing for later chapters. Make sure to completely and fully address the discussion question to obtain full graded points. University of Maryland PSYC 320 Biopsychology Questions and Answers Discussion 2. This discussion is related to research methods presented in chapter 5 of your textbook. After reading the chapter, please give your informed opinion to the following question: Which research method used in biopsychology is the best for understanding human behavior? Make sure to completely and fully address the discussion question to obtain full graded points. 3. Chapter 9 is concerned with the development of the nervous system. One of the most important issues discussed is the influence of experience on early development of the human brain. But the question remains: What experiences are important? Please post your ideas about what experiences early in life you believe are important for optimal brain development. Make sure to completely and fully address the discussion question to obtain full graded points. 4. please post your response to the following question: How can studying behavior affected by damaged brains tell the Biopsychologist about behavior when the brain is healthy? attachment_1 attachment_2 POWERPOINT PRESENTATION FOR BIOPSYCHOLOGY, 9TH EDITION BY JOHN P.J. PINEL P R E PA R E D B Y J E F F R E Y W. G R I M M WESTERN WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: • any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; • any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Chapter 9 Development of the Nervous System From Fertilized Egg to You Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objectives ? ? ? ? ? ? LO1: Describe the 5 phases of neurodevelopment. LO2 The human brain is not fully developed at birth. Explain. LO3: Discuss 5 examples of experience affecting early mammalian development. LO4: Discuss 5 examples of experience affecting adult mammalian development. LO5: Describe autism and attempts to identify its neural mechanisms. LO6: Describe WIlliams syndrome and attempts to identify its neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Neurodevelopment ? ? ? ? Neural development is an ongoing process; the nervous system is plastic. A Complex Process Experience plays a key role. There are dire consequences when something goes wrong. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Case of Genie ? ? ? ? At age 13, Genie weighed 62 pounds and could not chew solid food. She had been beaten, starved, restrained, kept in a dark room, and denied normal human interactions. Even with special care and training after rescue, her behavior never became normal. The case of Genie illustrates the impact of severe deprivation on development. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Phases of Development ? ? Ovum + Sperm = Zygote Developing neurons accomplish these things in five phases. ? ? ? ? ? Induction of the neural plate Neural proliferation Migration and aggregation Axon growth and synapse formation Neuron death and synapse rearrangement Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Induction of the Neural Plate ? ? ? ? A patch of tissue on the dorsal surface of the embryo becomes the neural plate. Development is induced by chemical signals from the mesoderm (the “organizer”). Visible Three Weeks after Conception Three Layers of Embryonic Cells ? ? ? Ectoderm (outermost) Mesoderm (middle) Endoderm (innermost) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Induction of the Neural Plate (Con’t) ? ? ? Neural plate cells are often referred to as embryonic stem cells. Have Unlimited Capacity for Self-Renewal Can Become Any Kind of Mature Cell ? ? Totipotent: the earliest cells have the ability to become any type of body cell. Multipotent: with development, neural plate cells are limited to becoming one of the range of mature nervous system cells. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 9.1 How the neural plate develops into the neural tube during the third and fourth weeks of human embryological development. (Based on Cowan, 1979.) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Neural Proliferation ? ? ? ?University of Maryland PSYC 320 Biopsychology Questions and Answers Discussion The neural plate folds to form the neural groove, which then fuses to form the neural tube. Inside will be the cerebral ventricles and neural tube. Neural tube cells proliferate in species-specific ways: three swellings at the anterior end in humans will become the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. Proliferation is chemically guided by the organizer areas—the roof plate and the floor plate. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Migration ? ? Once cells have been created through cell division in the ventricular zone of the neural tube, they migrate. Migrating cells are immature, lacking axons and dendrites. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Migration (Con’t) ? Two Types of Neural Tube Migration ? ? ? Two Methods of Migration ? ? ? Radial migration (moving out): usually by moving along radial glial cells Tangential migration (moving up) Somal: an extension develops that leads migration; the cell body follows. Glial-mediated migration: the cell moves along a radial glial network. Most cells engage in both types of migration. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 9.2 The two types of neural migration: radial migration and tangential migration. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 9.3 Two methods by which cells migrate in the developing neural tube: somal translocation and glia-mediated migration. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Neural Crest ? ? ? A Structure Dorsal to the Neural Tube and Formed from Neural Tube Cells Develops into the Cells of the Peripheral Nervous System Cells migrate long distances. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Aggregation ? ? After migration, cells align themselves with others cells and form structures. Cell-Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) ? ? ? Aid both migration and aggregation CAMs recognize and adhere to molecules. Gap junctions pass cytoplasm between cells. ? ? Prevalent in brain development May play a role in aggregation and other processes Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Axon Growth and Synapse Formation ? ? ? Once migration is complete and structures have formed (aggregation), axons and dendrites begin to grow. Growth cone: at the growing tip of each extension; extends and retracts filopodia as if finding its way Chemoaffinity hypothesis: postsynaptic targets release a chemical that guides axonal growth, but this does not explain the often circuitous routes often observed. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 9.4 Growth cones. The cytoplasmic fingers (the filopodia) of growth cones seem to grope for the correct route. (Courtesy of Naweed I. Syed, Ph.D., Departments of Anatomy and Medical Physiology, the University of Calgary.) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 9.5 Sperry’s classic study of eye rotation and regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Axon Growth and Synapse Formation (Con’t) ? ? ? ? Mechanisms underlying axonal growth are the same across species. A series of chemical signals exist along the way, attracting and repelling. Such guidance molecules are often released by glia. Adjacent growing axons also provide signals. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Axon Growth and Synapse Formation (Con’t) ? ? University of Maryland PSYC 320 Biopsychology Questions and Answers Discussion ? Pioneer growth cones: the first to travel a route; interact with guidance molecules Fasciculation: the tendency of developing axons to grow along the paths established by preceding axons Topographic gradient hypothesis seeks to explain topographic maps. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 9.6 The regeneration of the optic nerve of the frog after portions of either the retina or the optic tectum have been destroyed. These phenomena support the topographic gradient hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Synapse Formation ? ? ? ? Formation of new synapses depends on the presence of glial cells—especially astrocytes. High levels of cholesterol are needed—and are supplied by astrocytes. Chemical signal exchange between pre- and postsynaptic neurons is needed. A variety of signals act on developing neurons. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Neuron Death and Synapse Rearrangement ? ? Approximately 50 percent more neurons than are needed are produced; death is normal. Neurons die due to failure to compete for chemicals provided by targets. ? ? ? The more targets, the fewer cell deaths Destroying some cells increases the survival rate of remaining cells. Increasing the number of innervating axons decreases the proportion that survive. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Life-Preserving Chemicals ? Neurotrophins promote growth and survival, guide axons, and stimulate synaptogenesis. ? ? ? Nerve growth factor (NGF) Both Passive Cell Death (Necrosis) and Active Cell Death (Apoptosis) Apoptosis is safer than necrosis because it does not promote inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Synapse Rearrangement ? ? ? Neurons that fail to establish correct connections are particularly likely to die. Space left after apoptosis is filled by sprouting axon terminals of surviving neurons. This ultimately leads to increased selectivity of transmission. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 9.7 The effect of neuron death and synapse rearrangement on the selectivity of synaptic transmission. The synaptic contacts of each axon become focused on a smaller number of cells. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants ? Postnatal growth is a consequence of: ? ? ? ? Synaptogenesis Myelination of sensory areas and then motor areas: myelination of prefrontal cortex continues into adolescence. Increased dendritic branches Overproduction of synapses may underlie the greater plasticity of the young brain. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Development of the Prefrontal Cortex ? ? ? Believed to Underlie Age-Related Changes in Cognitive Function No single theory explains the function of this area. Prefrontal cortex plays a role in working memory, planning and carrying out sequences of actions, and inhibiting inappropriate responses. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Effects of Experience on the Early Development, Maintenance, and Reorganization of Neural Circuits ? ? ? Permissive experiences: those that are necessary for information in genetic programs to be manifested Instructive experiences: those that contribute to the direction of development Effects of experience on development are time-dependent. ? ?University of Maryland PSYC 320 Biopsychology Questions and Answers Discussion Critical period Sensitive period Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Early Studies of Experience and Neurodevelopment ? Early Visual Deprivation ? ? ? Fewer synapses and dendritic spines in primary visual cortex Deficits in depth and pattern vision Enriched Environment ? ? ? Thicker cortexes Greater dendritic development More synapses per neuron Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Competitive Nature of Experience and Neurodevelopment ? ? ? ? Ocular Dominance Columns Example: Monocular deprivation changes the pattern of synaptic input into layer IV of V1 (but not binocular deprivation). Altered exposure during a sensitive period leads to reorganization. Active motor neurons take precedence over inactive ones. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 9.9 The effect of a few days of early monocular deprivation on the structure of axons projecting from the lateral geniculate nucleus into layer IV of the primary visual cortex. Axons carrying information from the deprived eye displayed substantially less branching. (Based on Antonini & Stryker, 1993.) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Effects of Experience on Topographic Sensory Cortex Maps ? ? ? Cross-modal rewiring experiments demonstrate the plasticity of sensory cortexes—with visual input, the auditory cortex can see. Change the input, and you change the cortical topography: e.g., shifted auditory map in prismexposed owls. Early music training influences the organization of human auditory cortex: fMRI studies. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Experience Fine-Tunes Neurodevelopment ? ? ? Neural activity regulates the expression of genes that direct the synthesis of CAMs. Neural activity influences the release of neurotrophins. Some neural circuits are spontaneously active; this activity is needed for normal development. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Neuroplasticity in Adults ? ? ? The mature brain changes and adapts. Neurogenesis (growth of new neurons) is seen in the olfactory bulbs and hippocampuses of adult mammals: adult neural stem cells created in the ependymal layer lining in ventricles and adjacent tissues. Enriched environments and exercise can promote neurogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 9.10 Adult neurogenesis. The top panel shows new cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus— the cell bodies of neurons are stained blue, mature glial cells are stained green, and new cells are stained red. The bottom panel shows the new cells from the top panel under higher magnification, which makes it apparent that the new cells have taken up both blue and red stain and are thus new neurons. (Courtesy of Carl Ernst and Brian Christie, Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia.) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Effects of Experience on the Reorganization of the Adult Cortex ? ? ? Tinnitus (ringing in the ears) produces major reorganization of the primary auditory cortex. Adult musicians who play instruments fingered by the left hand have an enlarged representation of that hand in the right somatosensory cortex. Skill training leads to reorganization of motor cortex. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Disorders of Neurodevelopment: Autism ? Three Core Symptoms ? ? ? Reduced ability to interpret emotions and intentions Reduced capacity for social interaction Preoccupation with a single subject or activity Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Disorders of Neurodevelopment: Autism (Con’t) ? ? ? Intensive behavioral therapy may improve function. Heterogenous: level of brain damage and dysfunction varies Often Considered a Spectrum Disorder University of Maryland PSYC 320 Biopsychology Questions and Answers Discussion ? Autism spectrum disorders ? Asperger’s syndrome ? Mild autism spectrum disorder in which cognitive and linguistic functions are well preserved Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Disorders of Neurodevelopment: Autism (Con’t) ? ? ? ? Incidence: 6.6 per 1,000 Births (or 1 in 166) 80 percent of those affected are males, 60 percent are mentally retarded, 35 percent are epileptic, and 25 percent have little or no language ability. Most have some abilities preserved: e.g., rote memory, jigsaw puzzles, musical ability, or artistic ability. Autistic savants: intellectually handicapped individuals who display specific cognitive or artistic abilities ? ? Approximately 1 in 10 autistic individuals display savant abilities. Perhaps a consequence of compensatory functional improvement in one area following damage to another Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Genetic Basis of Autism ? ? ? Siblings of the autistic have a 5 percent chance of being autistic There is a 60 percent concordance rate for monozygotic twins. Several Genes Interacting with the Environment Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Neural Mechanisms of Autism ? Understanding of brain structures involved in autism is still limited; so far, research has implicated: ? ? ? ? Cerebellum Amygdala Frontal cortex There are two lines of research on cortical involvement in autism. ? Abnormal response to faces in autistic patients ? ? ? Spend less time than non-autistic subjects looking at faces, especially eyes Low fMRI activity in fusiform face area Possibly deficient in mirror neuron function Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Disorders of Neurodevelopment: Williams Syndrome ? ? ? ? ? 1 in Every 7,500 Births Mental Retardation and an Uneven Pattern of Abilities and Disabilities People with Williams syndrome are sociable, empathetic, and talkative; they exhibit language skills, music skills, and an enhanced ability to recognize faces. Profound Impairments in Spatial Cognition Those with Williams syndrome usually have heart disorders associated with a mutation in a gene on chromosome 7; the gene (and others) is absent in 95 percent of those with Williams. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Disorders of Neurodevelopment: Williams Syndrome (Con’t) ? ? ? There is evidence for a role of chromosome 7 (as in autism). General Thinning of Cortex at Juncture of Occipital and Parietal Lobes, and at the Orbitofrontal Cortex “Elfin” Appearance: Short, Small, Upturned Noses; Oval Ears; Broad Mouths Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 9.12 Two areas of reduced cortical volume and one area of increased cortical volume observed in people with Williams syndrome. (See Meyer-Lindenberg et al., 2006; Toga & Thompson, 2005.) University of Maryland PSYC 320 Biopsychology Questions and Answers Discussion Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Biopsychology Tenth Edition Chapter 05 The Research Methods of Biopsychology: Understanding What Biopsychologists Do Copyright © 2018, 2014, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Overview and Learning Objectives (1 of 8) • Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain –LO 5.1 Describe two x-ray-based techniques for visualizing the living human brain. –LO 5.2 Describe the positron emission tomography (PET) technique. –LO 5.3 Describe the magnetic-field-based techniques for imaging the living human brain. –LO 5.4 Describe the transcranial stimulation techniques. Copyright © 2018, 2014, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Overview and Learning Objectives (2 of 8) •Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity –LO 5.5 Describe two psychophysiological measures of brain activity. –LO 5.6 Describe two sorts of psychophysiological measures of somatic nervous system activity. –LO 5.7 Describe two psychophysiological measures of autonomic nervous system activity. Copyright © 2018, 2014, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Overview and Learning Objectives (3 of 8) •Invasive Physiological Research Methods –LO 5.8 Describe the process of stereotaxic surgery. –LO 5.9 Describe four types of lesion methods, and explain why it is important to be cautious when interpreting the effects of lesions. –LO 5.10 Describe the technique of electrical brain stimulation. –LO 5.11 Describe four invasive electrophysiological recording methods. Copyright © 2018, 2014, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Overview and Learning Objectives (4 of 8) •Pharmacological Research Methods –LO 5.12 Describe the various methods of drug administration. –LO 5.13 Describe the method of selective neurotoxic lesions. –LO 5.14 Describe two techniques for measuring chemical activity in the brain. –LO 5.15 Describe two techniques for locating particular neurotransmitters or receptors in the brain. Copyright © 2018, 2014, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Overview and Learning Objectives (5 of 8) •Genetic Engineering –LO 5.16 Describe gene knockout and gene replacement techniques, and explain what is meant by the term transgenic. –LO 5.17 Explain how green fluorescent protein has been used as a research tool in the neurosciences. –LO 5.18 Explain how op … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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