Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity

Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity are useful in achieving and maintaining optimal body composition. Discuss lifestyle patterns (both diet and physical activities) that will assist with losing body fat rather than weight. Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity Please make sure you meet the word count. You must also have an in-text citation and reference. Please use the book and references the reading material only. Please have intext citation included. APA Format and 250 words. personal_health_unit_4.pdf ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Nutrition LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing the study of this concept, you will be able to: ? Apply basic guidelines for healthy eating. Concept 14 ? List and apply dietary recommendations for carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. ? Interpret and use food labels to make healthy decisions. ? Describe and incorporate sound eating practices.W ? Describe and apply nutrition I guidelines for active people and those interested in performance (e.g., sports). ? Analyze your diet to determine nutrient quality. ? Compare nutritional quality of various foods. L S O N , J A M I E 5 0 5 1 B U The amount and kinds of food you eat affect your health and wellness. 323 324 Section 5 ? Nutrition and Body Composition he importance of good nutrition for optimal health is well established. Eating patterns have been related to four of the seven leading causes of death, and poor nutrition increases the risks for numerous diseases, including heart disease, obesity, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis, and many cancers (e.g., colon, prostate, mouth, throat, lung, and stomach). The American Cancer Society estimates that 35 percent of cancer risks are related to nutritional factors. In addition to helping avoid these health risks, proper nutrition can enhance the quality of life by improving appearance and increasing the ability to carry out work and leisure-time activity without fatigue. Most people believe that nutrition is important but still find it difficult to maintain a healthy diet. One reason for this is that foods are usually developed, marketed, and advertised for convenience and taste rather than for health or nutritional quality. Another reason is that many individuals have misconceptions about what constitutes a healthy diet. Some of these misconceptions are propagated by commercial interests and so-called experts with less than impressive credentials. Other misconceptions are created by the confusing, and often contradictory, news reports about new nutrition research. In spite of the fact that nutrition is an advanced science, many questions remain unanswered. This concept reviews important national guidelines and recommendations for healthy eating. The significance of essential dietary nutrients is also described along with strategies for adopting and maintaining a healthy diet. T Guidelines for Healthy Eating National dietary guidelines provide a sound plan for good nutrition. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) publishes a definitive report called the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to help consumers make healthier food choices. Federal law requires that these KEY PRINCIPLES • Build a healthy plate. • Cut back on foods high in solid fats. • Cut back on foods high in sugars and salt. • Eat the right amount of calories for you. • Be physically active your way. guidelines be updated every 5 years to incorporate new research findings. The most recent USDA nutrition guidelines were published in 2010. Many other countries release similar sets of guidelines specific to their population (e.g., Health Canada’s Food Guide). The MyPlate model conveys a variety of key nutrition principles. The U.S. Dietary Guidelines are developed largely to help promote education about healthy eating. Many of the key elements of the guidelines are summarized in the MyPlate model (see Figure 1) which replaces the previous MyPyramid model as the primary symbol or icon of the program. The four colored areas represent the different food groups (fruits, grains, vegetables, and proteins) and a glass represents the dairy food group W (including solid dairy products). The pyramid included the same categories, but the plate helps a person visualI ize the recommended allocations in a typical meal. Fruits L vegetables are emphasized in the MyPlate model and (representing half of the plate) because they are high S in nutrients and fiber and low in calories. The MyPlate O model also emphasizes healthy food choices in each category. For example, they recommend low-fat dairy N choices (e.g., shifting to skim milk) and making half of , your grains “whole” (i.e., whole grains). Key principles highlighted in the MyPlate model are summarized to the left J of Figure 1. Like the pyramid, the MyPlate image is widely promoted and displayed to help remind consumAabout the key principles of good nutrition. Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity There are ers aM number of other resources available to help consumers apply these principles and guidelines at the MyPlate webI (www.choosemyplate.gov). site E National dietary guidelines provide suggestions for healthy eating. The current version of the national Dietary 5 Guidelines for Americans emphasizes a “total diet” approach, which is defined as the “combination of foods 0 beverages that provide energy and nutrients, and conand stitute 5 an individual’s complete dietary intake, on average, 1 B U WHAT MAKES A HEALTHY PLATE? • Make half your plate fruits and vegetables. • Switch to skim or 1% milk. • Make at least half of your grains whole. • Vary your protein food choices. • Keep your food safe to eat. Figure 1 ? MyPlate presents a combination of nutrition guidelines and healthy food choices. Source: Adapted from the USDA 2010, www.choosemyplate.gov Concept 14 ? Nutrition over time.” The information at the right of Figure 1 tells how to “build a plate” to meet the “total diet” goal. The report further describes other key components of a nutrient-dense total diet: • Eat the right amount of calories for you. Effective weight control requires balancing energy intake with energy expenditure. The new guidelines encourage Americans to achieve their recommended nutrient intakes by consuming foods within a total diet that meets, but does not exceed, energy needs. This should be done using personal information such as age, gender, current body weight, and current physical activity levels. Studies indicate that Americans underestimate the number of calories they eat and only about 9 percent regularly keep track of the calories in the foods they eat. W • Consume nutrient-dense foods. Americans consume less I than 20 percent of the recommended intakes for whole L grains, less than 60 percent for vegetables, less than 50 percent for fruits, and less than 60 percent for milk S and milk products. Consuming nutrient-dense foods O improves the overall quality of the diet. Examples of nutrient-dense foods include vegetables, fruits, highN fiber whole grains, fat-free or lowfat milk and milk , products, seafood, lean meat and poultry, eggs, soy products, nuts, seeds, and oils. • Reduce solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). Evidence J indicates that solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS) conA tribute about 35 percent of total calories, leading to excessive intake of saturated fat and cholesterol and M insufficient intake of dietary fiber and other nutrients. I The guidelines recommend reducing consumption of SoFAS as an important diet strategy. E • Reduce sodium intake. Excessive sodium in the diet can increase blood pressure and lead to health problems. 5 • Be physically active your way. The USDA nutrition guidelines also emphasize the importance of daily physical 0 activity (60 minutes each day) in energy balance. Most 5 Americans overestimate the number of calories that they expend in activity. 1 B Specific Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) provide a U target zone for healthy eating. About 45 to 50 nutrients in food are believed to be essential for the body’s growth, maintenance, and repair. These are classified into six categories: carbohydrates (and fiber), fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. The first three provide energy, which is measured in calories. Specific dietary recommendations for each of the six nutrients are presented later in this concept. In the United States, guidelines specifying the nutrient requirements for good health are developed by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Science’s Institute of Medicine. Recommended Dietary 325 Allowance (RDA) historically was used to set recommendations for nutrients, but the complexity of dietary interactions prompted the board to develop a more comprehensive and functional set of dietary intake recommendations. These broader guidelines, referred to as Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), include RDA values when adequate scientific information is available and estimated Adequate Intake (AI) values when sufficient data aren’t available to establish a firm RDA. The DRI values also include Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), which reflects the highest level of daily intake a person can consume without adverse effects on health (see Table 1). The guidelines make it clear that although too little of a nutrient can be harmful to health, so can too much. The distinctions are similar to the concept of the target zone used to prescribe exercise levels.Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) values are analogous to the threshold levels (minimal amount needed to meet guidelines), while the Upper Limit values represent amounts that should not be exceeded. A unique aspect of the DRI values is that they are categorized by function and classification in order to facilitate awareness of the different roles that nutrients play in the diet. Specific guidelines have been developed for B-complex vitamins; vitamins C and E; bone-building nutrients, such as calcium and vitamin D; micronutrients, such as iron and zinc; and the class of macronutrients that includes carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and fiber. Table 1 includes the DRI values (including the UL values) for most of these nutrients. Nutrition recommendations are flexible, but also highly individualized. A unique aspect of the nutrition guidelines is that they highlight a variety of dietary patterns. The established DASH-style and Mediterraneanstyle dietary patterns were cited as examples of healthy diets because they have been well-supported in the scientific literature. The guidelines also referenced traditional Asian dietary patterns and vegetarian diets as Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Dietary guideline that specifies the amount of a nutrient needed for almost all of the healthy individuals in a specific age and gender group. Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) Appropriate amounts of nutrients in the diet (AI, RDA, and UL). Adequate Intake (AI) Dietary guideline established experimentally to estimate nutrient needs when sufficient data are not available to establish an RDA value. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) Maximum level of a daily nutrient that will not pose a risk of adverse health effects for most people. 326 Section 5 ? Nutrition and Body Composition Table 1 ? Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for Major Nutrients DRI/RDA Males Females UL Function Carbohydrates (45–65%) 130 g 130 g ND Energy (only source of energy for the brain) Fat (20–35%) ND ND ND Energy, vitamin carrier Protein (10–35%) .8 g/kg .8 g/kg ND Growth and maturation, tissue formation Fiber (g/day) 38 g/day* 25 g/day* ND Digestion, blood profiles Thiamin (mg/day) 1.2 1.1 ND Riboflavin (mg/day) 1.3 1.1 ND Niacin (mg/day) 16 14 35 Vitamin B-6 (mg/day) 1.3 1.3 100 Folate (?g/day) 400 400 1,000 Vitamin B-12 (?g/day) 2.4 2.4 ND Pantothenic acid (mg/day) 5* 5* ND Biotin (?g/day) 30* 30* ND Choline (mg/day) 550* 425* 3,500 Vitamin C (mg/day) 90 75 2,000 Vitamin E (mg/day) 15 15 1,000 Selenium (?g/day) 55 55 400 Calcium (mg/day) 1,000* 1,000* 2,500 Phosphorus (mg/day) 700 700 3,000 Magnesium (mg/day) 400–420 310–320 350 Vitamin D (?g/day) 5* 5* 50 Fluoride (mg/day) 4* 3* 10 Stimulation of new bone formation Vitamin K (?g/day) 120* 90* ND Blood clotting and bone metabolism Vitamin A (?g/day) 900 700 3,000 Vision, immune function Iron (mg/day) 8 18 45 Component of hemoglobin Zinc (mg/day) 11 8 40 Component of enzymes and proteins Energy and Macronutrients B-Complex Vitamins Antioxidants and Related Nutrients Bone-Building Nutrients W I L S O N , Co-enzyme for carbohydrates and amino acid metabolism Co-enzyme for metabolic reactions Co-enzyme for metabolic reactions Co-enzyme for amino acid and glycogen reactions Metabolism of amino acids Co-enzyme for nucleic acid metabolism Co-enzyme for fat metabolism J A M I E Synthesis of fat, glycogen, and amino acids Precursor to acetylcholine Co-factor for reactions, antioxidant Undetermined, mainly antioxidant 5 0 5 1 B U Defense against oxidative stress Muscle contraction, nerve transmission Maintenance of pH, storage of energy Co-factor for enzyme reactions Maintenance of calcium and phosphorus levels Micronutrients and Other Trace Elements Note: These values reflect the dietary needs generally for adults aged 19–50 years.Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity Specific guidelines for other age groups are available from the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences (www.iom.edu). Values labeled with an asterisk (*) are based on Adequate Intake (AI) values rather than the RDA values; ND = not determined. Concept 14 ? Nutrition examples of ways to achieve dietary goals. The new guidelines emphasize that a healthful total diet is not a rigid prescription but rather a flexible approach to eating that can be adjusted for a variety of individual tastes and preferences. The flexibility for individual eating patterns is also reflected in the wide ranges provided for various DRI categories. The recommended DRI values for carbohydrates range from 45 to 65 percent. The DRI values for protein range from 10 to 35 percent, while the DRI values for fat range from 20 to 35 percent. These ranges are much broader than recommendations from the USDA in previous versions of the dietary guidelines. According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM), this broader range was established to “help people make healthy and more realistic choices based on their own food preferences.” W Figure 2 illustrates the recommended DRI distributions for carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. I The quantity of nutrients recommended varies with L age and other considerations; for example, young children need more calcium than adults and pregnant women, and S postmenopausal women need more calcium than other O women. Accordingly, DRIs, including RDAs, have been established for several age/gender groups. In this book, N the values are appropriate for most , adult men and women. The USDA has a website that calculates personVIDEO 1 ally determined DRI values. You J can enter data such as your gender, A age, height, weight, and activity level, and the calculator determines your DRI values. (Search “USDA DRI calcuM lator” on the Internet.) Dietary Recommendations for Carbohydrates I E 5 Complex carbohydrates should be the principal 0 source of calories in the diet. Carbohydrates have 5 gotten a bad rap in recent years due to the hype associated 1 B U Protein 10–35% Fat 20–35% No more than 10% saturated fat Carbohydrate 45–65% Figure 2 ? Dietary Reference Intake values. 327 with low-carbohydrate diets. Carbohydrates have been unfairly implicated as a cause of obesity. The suggestion that they cause insulin to be released and that insulin, in turn, causes the body to take up and store excess energy as fat is overly simplistic and doesn’t take into account differences in types of carbohydrates. Simple sugars (such as sucrose, glucose, and fructose) found in candy and soda lead to quick increases in blood sugar and tend to promote fat deposition. Complex carbohydrates (e.g., bread, pasta, rice), on the other hand, are broken down more slowly and do not cause the same effect on blood sugar. They contribute valuable nutrients and fiber in the diet and should constitute the bulk of a person’s diet. Lumping simple and complex carbohydrates together is not appropriate, since they are processed differently and have different nutrient values. A number of low-carb diet books have used an index known as the glycemic index (GI) as the basis for determining if foods are appropriate in the diet. Foods with a high GI value produce rapid increases in blood sugar, while foods with a low GI value produce slower increases. While this seems to be a logical way to categorize carbohydrates, it is misleading, since it doesn’t account for the amount of carbohydrates in different servings of a food. A more appropriate indicator of the effect of foods on blood sugar levels is called the glycemic load. Carrots, for example, are known to have a very high GI value, but the overall glycemic load is quite low. The carbohydrates from most fruits and vegetables exhibit similar properties. Despite the intuitive and logical appeal of this classification system, neither the glycemic index nor glycemic load have been consistently associated with body weight. Evidence also indicates no difference on weight loss between high glycemic index and low glycemic index diets.Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity There is some evidence linking glycemic load to a higher risk for diabetes but no associations with cancer risk. Additional research is needed, but excess sugar consumption appears to be problematic only if caloric intake is larger than caloric expenditure. Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred form of energy for physical activity, and the body is well equipped for processing extra carbohydrates. Athletes and other active individuals typically have no difficulty burning off extra energy from carbohydrates. Sugar consumption, among people with an adequate diet, is also not associated with major chronic diseases. Reducing dietary sugar can help reduce risk of obesity and heart disease. Although sugar consumption has not been viewed as harmful, people who consume high amounts of sugar also tend to consume excess calories. The new dietary guidelines clearly recommend decreasing consumption of added sugars to reduce risk of excess calorie consumption and weight gain. The American Heart Association also endorsed this position in a 328 Section 5 ? Nutrition and Body Composition scientific statement entitled “Dietary Sugars Intake and Cardiovascular Health.” The document notes that excessive consumption of sugars (sugars added to foods and drinks) contributes to overconsumption of discretionary calories. Among Americans, the current average daily sugars consumption is 355 calories per day (22.2 teaspoons) as opposed to 279 calories in 1970. Soft drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages are the primary sources of added sugars in the American diet. The AHA’s scientific statement recommends no more than 100 calories of added sugars for most women and not more than 150 calories for most men. A typical 12-ounce sweetened soft drink contains 150 calories, mostly sugar. Reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is a simple, but important, diet modification. Increasing consumption of dietary fiber is important for overall good nutrition and health. Diets high in complex carbohydrates and fiber are associated with a low incidence of coronary heart disease, stroke, and some forms of cancer. Long-term studies indicate that highfiber diets may also be associated with a lower risk for diabetes mellitus, diverticulosis, hypertension, and gallstone formation. It is not known whether these health benefits are directly attributable to high dietary fiber or other effects associated with the ingestion of vegetables, fruits, and cereals. A position statement from the American Dietetics Association summarizes the health benefits and importance of fiber in a healthy diet. It indicates that high-fiber diets provide bulk, are more satiating, and are linked to lower body weights. It also points out that a fiber-rich diet often has a l … Purchase answer to see full attachment Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service . Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity

Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity are useful in achieving and maintaining optimal body composition. Discuss lifestyle patterns (both diet and physical activities) that will assist with losing body fat rather than weight. Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity Please make sure you meet the word count. You must also have an in-text citation and reference. Please use the book and references the reading material only. Please have intext citation included. APA Format and 250 words. personal_health_unit_4.pdf ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Nutrition LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing the study of this concept, you will be able to: ? Apply basic guidelines for healthy eating. Concept 14 ? List and apply dietary recommendations for carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. ? Interpret and use food labels to make healthy decisions. ? Describe and incorporate sound eating practices.W ? Describe and apply nutrition I guidelines for active people and those interested in performance (e.g., sports). ? Analyze your diet to determine nutrient quality. ? Compare nutritional quality of various foods. L S O N , J A M I E 5 0 5 1 B U The amount and kinds of food you eat affect your health and wellness. 323 324 Section 5 ? Nutrition and Body Composition he importance of good nutrition for optimal health is well established. Eating patterns have been related to four of the seven leading causes of death, and poor nutrition increases the risks for numerous diseases, including heart disease, obesity, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis, and many cancers (e.g., colon, prostate, mouth, throat, lung, and stomach). The American Cancer Society estimates that 35 percent of cancer risks are related to nutritional factors. In addition to helping avoid these health risks, proper nutrition can enhance the quality of life by improving appearance and increasing the ability to carry out work and leisure-time activity without fatigue. Most people believe that nutrition is important but still find it difficult to maintain a healthy diet. One reason for this is that foods are usually developed, marketed, and advertised for convenience and taste rather than for health or nutritional quality. Another reason is that many individuals have misconceptions about what constitutes a healthy diet. Some of these misconceptions are propagated by commercial interests and so-called experts with less than impressive credentials. Other misconceptions are created by the confusing, and often contradictory, news reports about new nutrition research. In spite of the fact that nutrition is an advanced science, many questions remain unanswered. This concept reviews important national guidelines and recommendations for healthy eating. The significance of essential dietary nutrients is also described along with strategies for adopting and maintaining a healthy diet. T Guidelines for Healthy Eating National dietary guidelines provide a sound plan for good nutrition. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) publishes a definitive report called the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to help consumers make healthier food choices. Federal law requires that these KEY PRINCIPLES • Build a healthy plate. • Cut back on foods high in solid fats. • Cut back on foods high in sugars and salt. • Eat the right amount of calories for you. • Be physically active your way. guidelines be updated every 5 years to incorporate new research findings. The most recent USDA nutrition guidelines were published in 2010. Many other countries release similar sets of guidelines specific to their population (e.g., Health Canada’s Food Guide). The MyPlate model conveys a variety of key nutrition principles. The U.S. Dietary Guidelines are developed largely to help promote education about healthy eating. Many of the key elements of the guidelines are summarized in the MyPlate model (see Figure 1) which replaces the previous MyPyramid model as the primary symbol or icon of the program. The four colored areas represent the different food groups (fruits, grains, vegetables, and proteins) and a glass represents the dairy food group W (including solid dairy products). The pyramid included the same categories, but the plate helps a person visualI ize the recommended allocations in a typical meal. Fruits L vegetables are emphasized in the MyPlate model and (representing half of the plate) because they are high S in nutrients and fiber and low in calories. The MyPlate O model also emphasizes healthy food choices in each category. For example, they recommend low-fat dairy N choices (e.g., shifting to skim milk) and making half of , your grains “whole” (i.e., whole grains). Key principles highlighted in the MyPlate model are summarized to the left J of Figure 1. Like the pyramid, the MyPlate image is widely promoted and displayed to help remind consumAabout the key principles of good nutrition. Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity There are ers aM number of other resources available to help consumers apply these principles and guidelines at the MyPlate webI (www.choosemyplate.gov). site E National dietary guidelines provide suggestions for healthy eating. The current version of the national Dietary 5 Guidelines for Americans emphasizes a “total diet” approach, which is defined as the “combination of foods 0 beverages that provide energy and nutrients, and conand stitute 5 an individual’s complete dietary intake, on average, 1 B U WHAT MAKES A HEALTHY PLATE? • Make half your plate fruits and vegetables. • Switch to skim or 1% milk. • Make at least half of your grains whole. • Vary your protein food choices. • Keep your food safe to eat. Figure 1 ? MyPlate presents a combination of nutrition guidelines and healthy food choices. Source: Adapted from the USDA 2010, www.choosemyplate.gov Concept 14 ? Nutrition over time.” The information at the right of Figure 1 tells how to “build a plate” to meet the “total diet” goal. The report further describes other key components of a nutrient-dense total diet: • Eat the right amount of calories for you. Effective weight control requires balancing energy intake with energy expenditure. The new guidelines encourage Americans to achieve their recommended nutrient intakes by consuming foods within a total diet that meets, but does not exceed, energy needs. This should be done using personal information such as age, gender, current body weight, and current physical activity levels. Studies indicate that Americans underestimate the number of calories they eat and only about 9 percent regularly keep track of the calories in the foods they eat. W • Consume nutrient-dense foods. Americans consume less I than 20 percent of the recommended intakes for whole L grains, less than 60 percent for vegetables, less than 50 percent for fruits, and less than 60 percent for milk S and milk products. Consuming nutrient-dense foods O improves the overall quality of the diet. Examples of nutrient-dense foods include vegetables, fruits, highN fiber whole grains, fat-free or lowfat milk and milk , products, seafood, lean meat and poultry, eggs, soy products, nuts, seeds, and oils. • Reduce solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). Evidence J indicates that solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS) conA tribute about 35 percent of total calories, leading to excessive intake of saturated fat and cholesterol and M insufficient intake of dietary fiber and other nutrients. I The guidelines recommend reducing consumption of SoFAS as an important diet strategy. E • Reduce sodium intake. Excessive sodium in the diet can increase blood pressure and lead to health problems. 5 • Be physically active your way. The USDA nutrition guidelines also emphasize the importance of daily physical 0 activity (60 minutes each day) in energy balance. Most 5 Americans overestimate the number of calories that they expend in activity. 1 B Specific Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) provide a U target zone for healthy eating. About 45 to 50 nutrients in food are believed to be essential for the body’s growth, maintenance, and repair. These are classified into six categories: carbohydrates (and fiber), fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. The first three provide energy, which is measured in calories. Specific dietary recommendations for each of the six nutrients are presented later in this concept. In the United States, guidelines specifying the nutrient requirements for good health are developed by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Science’s Institute of Medicine. Recommended Dietary 325 Allowance (RDA) historically was used to set recommendations for nutrients, but the complexity of dietary interactions prompted the board to develop a more comprehensive and functional set of dietary intake recommendations. These broader guidelines, referred to as Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), include RDA values when adequate scientific information is available and estimated Adequate Intake (AI) values when sufficient data aren’t available to establish a firm RDA. The DRI values also include Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), which reflects the highest level of daily intake a person can consume without adverse effects on health (see Table 1). The guidelines make it clear that although too little of a nutrient can be harmful to health, so can too much. The distinctions are similar to the concept of the target zone used to prescribe exercise levels.Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) values are analogous to the threshold levels (minimal amount needed to meet guidelines), while the Upper Limit values represent amounts that should not be exceeded. A unique aspect of the DRI values is that they are categorized by function and classification in order to facilitate awareness of the different roles that nutrients play in the diet. Specific guidelines have been developed for B-complex vitamins; vitamins C and E; bone-building nutrients, such as calcium and vitamin D; micronutrients, such as iron and zinc; and the class of macronutrients that includes carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and fiber. Table 1 includes the DRI values (including the UL values) for most of these nutrients. Nutrition recommendations are flexible, but also highly individualized. A unique aspect of the nutrition guidelines is that they highlight a variety of dietary patterns. The established DASH-style and Mediterraneanstyle dietary patterns were cited as examples of healthy diets because they have been well-supported in the scientific literature. The guidelines also referenced traditional Asian dietary patterns and vegetarian diets as Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Dietary guideline that specifies the amount of a nutrient needed for almost all of the healthy individuals in a specific age and gender group. Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) Appropriate amounts of nutrients in the diet (AI, RDA, and UL). Adequate Intake (AI) Dietary guideline established experimentally to estimate nutrient needs when sufficient data are not available to establish an RDA value. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) Maximum level of a daily nutrient that will not pose a risk of adverse health effects for most people. 326 Section 5 ? Nutrition and Body Composition Table 1 ? Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for Major Nutrients DRI/RDA Males Females UL Function Carbohydrates (45–65%) 130 g 130 g ND Energy (only source of energy for the brain) Fat (20–35%) ND ND ND Energy, vitamin carrier Protein (10–35%) .8 g/kg .8 g/kg ND Growth and maturation, tissue formation Fiber (g/day) 38 g/day* 25 g/day* ND Digestion, blood profiles Thiamin (mg/day) 1.2 1.1 ND Riboflavin (mg/day) 1.3 1.1 ND Niacin (mg/day) 16 14 35 Vitamin B-6 (mg/day) 1.3 1.3 100 Folate (?g/day) 400 400 1,000 Vitamin B-12 (?g/day) 2.4 2.4 ND Pantothenic acid (mg/day) 5* 5* ND Biotin (?g/day) 30* 30* ND Choline (mg/day) 550* 425* 3,500 Vitamin C (mg/day) 90 75 2,000 Vitamin E (mg/day) 15 15 1,000 Selenium (?g/day) 55 55 400 Calcium (mg/day) 1,000* 1,000* 2,500 Phosphorus (mg/day) 700 700 3,000 Magnesium (mg/day) 400–420 310–320 350 Vitamin D (?g/day) 5* 5* 50 Fluoride (mg/day) 4* 3* 10 Stimulation of new bone formation Vitamin K (?g/day) 120* 90* ND Blood clotting and bone metabolism Vitamin A (?g/day) 900 700 3,000 Vision, immune function Iron (mg/day) 8 18 45 Component of hemoglobin Zinc (mg/day) 11 8 40 Component of enzymes and proteins Energy and Macronutrients B-Complex Vitamins Antioxidants and Related Nutrients Bone-Building Nutrients W I L S O N , Co-enzyme for carbohydrates and amino acid metabolism Co-enzyme for metabolic reactions Co-enzyme for metabolic reactions Co-enzyme for amino acid and glycogen reactions Metabolism of amino acids Co-enzyme for nucleic acid metabolism Co-enzyme for fat metabolism J A M I E Synthesis of fat, glycogen, and amino acids Precursor to acetylcholine Co-factor for reactions, antioxidant Undetermined, mainly antioxidant 5 0 5 1 B U Defense against oxidative stress Muscle contraction, nerve transmission Maintenance of pH, storage of energy Co-factor for enzyme reactions Maintenance of calcium and phosphorus levels Micronutrients and Other Trace Elements Note: These values reflect the dietary needs generally for adults aged 19–50 years.Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity Specific guidelines for other age groups are available from the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences (www.iom.edu). Values labeled with an asterisk (*) are based on Adequate Intake (AI) values rather than the RDA values; ND = not determined. Concept 14 ? Nutrition examples of ways to achieve dietary goals. The new guidelines emphasize that a healthful total diet is not a rigid prescription but rather a flexible approach to eating that can be adjusted for a variety of individual tastes and preferences. The flexibility for individual eating patterns is also reflected in the wide ranges provided for various DRI categories. The recommended DRI values for carbohydrates range from 45 to 65 percent. The DRI values for protein range from 10 to 35 percent, while the DRI values for fat range from 20 to 35 percent. These ranges are much broader than recommendations from the USDA in previous versions of the dietary guidelines. According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM), this broader range was established to “help people make healthy and more realistic choices based on their own food preferences.” W Figure 2 illustrates the recommended DRI distributions for carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. I The quantity of nutrients recommended varies with L age and other considerations; for example, young children need more calcium than adults and pregnant women, and S postmenopausal women need more calcium than other O women. Accordingly, DRIs, including RDAs, have been established for several age/gender groups. In this book, N the values are appropriate for most , adult men and women. The USDA has a website that calculates personVIDEO 1 ally determined DRI values. You J can enter data such as your gender, A age, height, weight, and activity level, and the calculator determines your DRI values. (Search “USDA DRI calcuM lator” on the Internet.) Dietary Recommendations for Carbohydrates I E 5 Complex carbohydrates should be the principal 0 source of calories in the diet. Carbohydrates have 5 gotten a bad rap in recent years due to the hype associated 1 B U Protein 10–35% Fat 20–35% No more than 10% saturated fat Carbohydrate 45–65% Figure 2 ? Dietary Reference Intake values. 327 with low-carbohydrate diets. Carbohydrates have been unfairly implicated as a cause of obesity. The suggestion that they cause insulin to be released and that insulin, in turn, causes the body to take up and store excess energy as fat is overly simplistic and doesn’t take into account differences in types of carbohydrates. Simple sugars (such as sucrose, glucose, and fructose) found in candy and soda lead to quick increases in blood sugar and tend to promote fat deposition. Complex carbohydrates (e.g., bread, pasta, rice), on the other hand, are broken down more slowly and do not cause the same effect on blood sugar. They contribute valuable nutrients and fiber in the diet and should constitute the bulk of a person’s diet. Lumping simple and complex carbohydrates together is not appropriate, since they are processed differently and have different nutrient values. A number of low-carb diet books have used an index known as the glycemic index (GI) as the basis for determining if foods are appropriate in the diet. Foods with a high GI value produce rapid increases in blood sugar, while foods with a low GI value produce slower increases. While this seems to be a logical way to categorize carbohydrates, it is misleading, since it doesn’t account for the amount of carbohydrates in different servings of a food. A more appropriate indicator of the effect of foods on blood sugar levels is called the glycemic load. Carrots, for example, are known to have a very high GI value, but the overall glycemic load is quite low. The carbohydrates from most fruits and vegetables exhibit similar properties. Despite the intuitive and logical appeal of this classification system, neither the glycemic index nor glycemic load have been consistently associated with body weight. Evidence also indicates no difference on weight loss between high glycemic index and low glycemic index diets.Various management strategies for eating and performing physical activity There is some evidence linking glycemic load to a higher risk for diabetes but no associations with cancer risk. Additional research is needed, but excess sugar consumption appears to be problematic only if caloric intake is larger than caloric expenditure. Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred form of energy for physical activity, and the body is well equipped for processing extra carbohydrates. Athletes and other active individuals typically have no difficulty burning off extra energy from carbohydrates. Sugar consumption, among people with an adequate diet, is also not associated with major chronic diseases. Reducing dietary sugar can help reduce risk of obesity and heart disease. Although sugar consumption has not been viewed as harmful, people who consume high amounts of sugar also tend to consume excess calories. The new dietary guidelines clearly recommend decreasing consumption of added sugars to reduce risk of excess calorie consumption and weight gain. The American Heart Association also endorsed this position in a 328 Section 5 ? Nutrition and Body Composition scientific statement entitled “Dietary Sugars Intake and Cardiovascular Health.” The document notes that excessive consumption of sugars (sugars added to foods and drinks) contributes to overconsumption of discretionary calories. Among Americans, the current average daily sugars consumption is 355 calories per day (22.2 teaspoons) as opposed to 279 calories in 1970. Soft drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages are the primary sources of added sugars in the American diet. The AHA’s scientific statement recommends no more than 100 calories of added sugars for most women and not more than 150 calories for most men. A typical 12-ounce sweetened soft drink contains 150 calories, mostly sugar. Reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is a simple, but important, diet modification. Increasing consumption of dietary fiber is important for overall good nutrition and health. Diets high in complex carbohydrates and fiber are associated with a low incidence of coronary heart disease, stroke, and some forms of cancer. Long-term studies indicate that highfiber diets may also be associated with a lower risk for diabetes mellitus, diverticulosis, hypertension, and gallstone formation. It is not known whether these health benefits are directly attributable to high dietary fiber or other effects associated with the ingestion of vegetables, fruits, and cereals. A position statement from the American Dietetics Association summarizes the health benefits and importance of fiber in a healthy diet. It indicates that high-fiber diets provide bulk, are more satiating, and are linked to lower body weights. It also points out that a fiber-rich diet often has a l … Purchase answer to see full attachment Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service . Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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